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APA Literature Review

Apa research paper literature review

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Sample Literature Reviews - Literature Review: Conducting & Writing

blogs vs essays Nicholas Handler, is a junior at paper, Yale University majoring in history. Handler is poster board presentation, active in social justice organizations and hopes to become a human rights lawyer. I never expected to literature, gain any new insight into homework binder the nature of my generation, or the changing landscape of American colleges, in Lit Theory. Lit Theory is supposed to apa research paper literature review, be the class where you sit at the back of the room with every other jaded sophomore wearing skinny jeans, thick-framed glasses, an ironic tee-shirt and over-sized retro headphones, just waiting for lecture to be over so you can light up a Turkish Gold and walk to lunch while listening to homework binder, Wilco. That#8217;s pretty much the way I spent the course, too: through structuralism, formalism, gender theory, and post-colonialism, I was far too busy shuffling through my iPod to see what the patriarchal world order of capitalist oppression had to do with Ethan Frome. But when we began to apa research literature, study postmodernism, something struck a chord with me and made me sit up and look anew at the seemingly blase college-aged literati of which I was so self-consciously one. Letter: Fortunately, College Has Changed.

This is in regard to essays, your college essay contest that took place last year. The essay entitled Fortunately, College Has Changed by Matthew Bender from the apa research paper review, University of bewerbungshilfe Arkansas has several factual errors and insinuations. Paper Review! Then entire first and second paragraphs are neither chronologically or factually correct. How do I know that there are errors? Because I am Mervin Jebaraj, the apa research literature, person referred to in the opening paragraph. 1. A committee of students wrote the bewerbungshilfe, actual text of a proposed bill not a note. The idea began in November of 2007 and not in the spring. 2. There was no staying up all night, and there was no on campus bbq. Apa Research Literature! The committee obtained a meeting with Sen. Madison after a lot of work and didn#8217;t just pass a note to her. The committee also spent months working with her and bewerbungshilfe other legislators. to see the resolution passed.

We don#8217;t appreciate the trivialising narrative of our work. 3. The resolution never asked for the creation of socially aware investments, the apa research paper, options already existed. 4. The conference I went to was well after the divestment process and was to share ideas about divestment with others as opposed to receiving inspiration for divestment. 5. There is an implication that I was skinny dipping and essay america smoking marijuana in Belize. Neither is true. I hold the New York times in the highest regard and hope that you will take this seriously. In the future, I hope you check the. Apa Research! veracity of statements made before you publish them. Mervin Jebaraj, Research Assistant, Center for Business and Economic Research. Liz Addison , 38, is a biology major whose goal is to become a large animal veterinarian. She has trained a winning racehorse and essay america is interested in American presidential history. Oh, the hand wringing. Apa Research Literature! #8220;College as America used to understand it is coming to an end,#8221; bemoans Rick Perlstein and his beatnik friend of fallen face.

Those days, man, when a pretentious reading list was all it took to lift a child from suburbia. When jazz riffs hung in the dorm lounge air with the thesis board presentation, smoke of a thousand bongs, and college really mattered. Really mattered? Rick Perlstein thinks so. It mattered so much to him that he never got over his four years at the University of Privilege. So he moved back to paper literature review, live in essay america its shadow, like a retired ballerina taking a seat in the stalls. But when the curtain went up he saw students working and studying and literature review working some more. Adults before their time. Today, at the University of Privilege, the student applies with a Curriculum Vitae not a book list.

Shudder. Frankie Thomas , is a junior majoring in extended essays and management cinema-television critical studies, with a minor in gender studies. Apa Research! Her immediate plans include dropping out at the end of the year to essays and management, write and/or travel. She is a film maker and a blogger, with interests ranging from the social history of the Victorian era to paper, birdwatching to the novels of Dawn Powell. I had the kind of college experience most people only bewerbungshilfe, dream about. Charged by the atmosphere of intellectual exploration, inspired by professors who pushed me farther than I#8217;d ever imagined I could go, I made fascinating new friends at Skidmore; together we discovered Nabokov and Kafka, Citizen Kane and Dr. Strangelove, and our own literary voices.

It was a three-week summer program. Apa Research Paper Literature Review! I was fifteen. Now I#8217;m twenty, halfway toward graduating from extended essays, University of Southern California, and if I had a thousand dollars for every college student I know who Struggles With Depression#8230;well, I still wouldn#8217;t have enough money to pay my full tuition. But it would keep me going for a semester or two, assuming I didn#8217;t lose my own struggle and drop listlessly out. As our SATs would have put it, #8220;depression#8221; is to #8220;college campus#8221; as #8220;consumption#8221; is to #8220;Victorian orphanage,#8221; and ours is a generation of wheezing waifs.

Max Lance , 23, is apa research review, a freshman at USC#8217;s School of Cinematic Arts, majoring in writing for film and television. He hopes to make his mark either with a #8220;life-changing TV show#8221; or by #8220;marrying someone rich.#8221; When I dropped out of response essay college three years ago I would have completely agreed that college isn#8217;t the apa research review, cultural experience that it was hyped up to be. As I return this September, I#8217;ve realized that it#8217;s a good thing it isn#8217;t. I completely agree that college as America used to know it has come to an end, but I believe that schools have changed for reviews the better. The problem I had when I quit school the first time around was that I never adjusted to apa research paper, how schools have changed. I dropped out because of my mislaid expectations; the by john updike response, same ones that Rick Perlstein is nostalgic for.

I#8217;m going back to school because I#8217;ve realized what the college experience is like today and I#8217;m now more than prepared to abuse it. Like nearly everyone in my graduating class, I attended higher education because that#8217;s what we did next. College seemed more like 13th grade rather than a place where I would be opened up to radical people and ways of thinking. I spent my freshman and sophomore years doing what I needed to paper literature, do to get good grades because that#8217;s all I had done since kindergarten. And even though I worked hard to earn a 3.7 GPA, I dropped out of New York University because of a complete lack of passion for what I was studying (journalism, via process of elimination). Travis Weinger , 21, is a senior majoring in history, with a concentration in essay war, revolution and social change. His minor is political science. He is paper literature review, a founder of the Triton, a newspaper at bewerbungshilfe, UCSD, and of the paper, Symposium, an on-campus discussion group.

Rick Perlstein#8217;s article, boiled down, is simply an a&p updike essay, extended version of the bitching that every generation hears from the one that preceded it: #8220;Back when I went to school, we walked uphill in the snow both ways#8230;#8221; In sum, college mattered back when Mr. Perlstein went to apa research literature review, it because that was when he went to it. Since college has changed from when he remembered it, he wants us to by john updike essay, believe that it has somehow degenerated into irrelevance. The vast majority of Perlstein#8217;s complaints fit under the above rubric. Our college experience is apa research literature, not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and bully them into visiting our dorms). Our activists are not as radical as his were (we don#8217;t take over enough buildings).

Our connection to slavery america, the Sixties isn#8217;t as strong as his was (our band members aren#8217;t former revolutionaries). We are not as alienated from society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about it). Perlstein#8217;s claim that his experience was in some way both richer and harder than the next generation#8217;s is an old one, and is continuously echoed by every generation. Like most complaints of this type, it is largely groundless and apa research paper review mildly insulting. To respond to it bit by reviews bit would validate his nostalgic whining to paper review, a degree it does not deserve. The Cultural Contradictions of American Universities. For the past twenty to thirty years, we have seen the great degradation of post-secondary education. Conventional wisdom suggests that the problem lies simultaneously within the hands of the politicians and homework binder the students. This narrative does not account for apa research review the history of college. Essay! Throughout the modern age, the role college played in the national debate was minimal.

To this date, there has only been one president with a Ph.D., and both The New Deal and Truman#8217;s Fair Deal did relatively little for college and education in general (with the exception of the G.I. Bill). And even today, most candidates on apa research review both sides of the isle have the same prescription for college: the problem is lack of funding, therefore, the solution is to increase funding. It usually ends at that. In order to, find the true crisis of review college, we must first look at extended in business and management, its true purpose. A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of columns in the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out of the national debate, but that its role is too great. Essentially, too many people are going to college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training.

There are serious problems with his logic to paper literature, be sure, not the least of bewerbungshilfe which is his obvious IQ-ism. While it is true that college is in literature review need of some serious reforming, focusing solely on IQ will not solve them, for IQ is not the only purpose of college. For example, there are, what a professor of mine called, #8220;latent overtones.#8221; That is, those unexpected, and unintended consequences of reviews college learning. For example, one might discover a great philosopher that he#8217;s never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of study which they did not expect. But this is, of apa research paper course, part of the reviews, intellectual journey of students. College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to literature, change the culture.

It exists to create a new breed of intellectuals. All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to think, but how to think. This is where Mr. Murray and I agree. He hits the nail on the head when he describes the purpose of homework binder college, that college is created to train the elites to do their jobs. However, this purpose has been lost in a quagmire of literature review watered-down curricula and fluff courses. And this brings us to the real problem of essay america college: the searing anti-intellectualism of the youth. Education is the single most important factor in the growth of our country.

Specifically, higher education paves a future and apa research paper literature review provides opportunity for students that attend college and gives them a shot at a career. 50 years ago, college was strictly for the elite, high class Americans. Slavery Essay! Now, it seems that every common household has at least one family member attend college. But with the apa research, increasing drop out slavery essay, rate today, students seem less interested in learning at college and their priorities change from their original goal of apa research paper graduating. The importance of education today is a growing factor because the future of homework binder this country depends on the students in college today. College is apa research paper, misunderstood by many incoming freshman. All of the reviews, television advertisements and billboards encouraging students to attend college are used as bait to reel in student#8217;s tuition. Paper Literature Review! Parents encourage their kids to attend college after graduating high school because they want to homework binder, see their kids have a shot at apa research paper, success. However, college is not cut out for everyone. More freshman than ever are dropping out after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries. The pressures of college whether it#8217;s to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of reviews many students while they are in college, freezing them from work and attending class regularly.

Back in the 50#8217;s and 60#8217;s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to improve their education and learn through the review, college experience, in hopes of slavery essay obtaining a career after graduation. Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there. Many people attend college just to paper literature review, party as much as possible. College can be misleading for teenagers fresh out of high school, and people who feel that continuing their education isn#8217;t the most important factor in essays and management attending college should not apply. College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to its knees and regress into deep depression. Jobs would flounder because the people applying for them wouldn#8217;t get accepted without college degrees.

Pat Brown expanded university development in California in literature 1966 to encourage people of every social class to attend college and gain a higher education. The reason for his rapid expansion was because the number of college students doubled from 1957 to poster board, 1967, and Brown decided in order to improve society and keep America running, more universities should be built to literature, attract new students. However, in 1997, only 54 percent of students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year. Once students enroll in college, dropping out is the worst decision they can make. The opportunity cost of dropping can be detrimental to a student#8217;s financial standing. Dropping out also means dropping tuition, and students are often left with debt to pay off depending on bewerbungshilfe which year they dropped out. Entering in paper review a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is why college is so important to stick to and graduate once enrolled. The likelihood of students being able to pay off student loans quickly after graduating is much greater than the likelihood of a drop out paying off loans. Bewerbungshilfe! Drop outs sometimes will only make enough money per paycheck to pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over cash for leisure activities. Once choosing the apa research literature review, decision to attend college, remaining in college is the extended essays in business, most important decision a student can make, in order to avoid living a below average lifestyle. Young adults are fed by change.

No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to change, when all is said and done change sustains me. Two years as an undergraduate student at Fordham University have been made slightly easier by knowing this about myself, because college means change. Even with the still shrinking cyber community and the #8216;real world#8217; opportunities offered to many young people today, nothing can replace the apa research literature, rush of change attached to the college experience. College students are encouraged to make noise. When interviewed by Rick Perlstein for an article entitled #8216;What#8217;s the Matter With College#8221; students were very vocal. Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school #8220;with a passion#8221; and #8220;don#8217;t leave#8221;. Perlstein writes that Morris#8217;s feelings are proof of a #8220;culture of extended essays enervation#8221; which overwhelms many campuses today. Instead of seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the apa research paper, will to pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of restlessness.

Students who claim to hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of restlessness which comes with the package. Students experience change so quicklychanges of bewerbungshilfe passions, opinions and interests. Paper! They are bound to become restless, especially when the off-campus world is within arm#8217;s length. Bewerbungshilfe! I often smile to think the world is at my fingertips when I am surfing the internet, but the truth is my fingers are touching my keyboard, and I am planted in my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke. College offers me the opportunity to shake hands with the apa research paper, leaders of business, art, science and medicinesomething the internet can not give me. College professors do not want students to be excited about school and theory alonethey want them to take their passion into the world beyond the campus. I am not writing this commentary for my school newspaper. I am writing it for New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to work for. College urges me to aspire, to voice my opinions, and reviews yes, to change. The problem with colleges in the 21st century is convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in a more complex position for current college students to experience, unlike any previous generation of college students. In my opinion, being a college graduate student and one who has been involved in my school, I can honestly say that the biggest problem with our generation is the apa research paper, sense of nihilism, which is plaguing the poster board, our very core of our being.

It is important to realize that this comes not only from paper literature, college campuses, but the society in general; people just don#8217;t care. If they do care and want to homework binder, be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is what keeps them from paper literature, being invoked with the spirit of the previous generations. There seems to be no sense of urgency when it comes to our generation. Extended Essays And Management! Nihilism will do that to everyone. I also find it interesting that the apa research paper literature review, people who do want to be involved do not necessarily know what to get involved with. In the 60s, it seemed to slavery, be clear cut what the problem was; racism, sexism, or the war in Vietnam. A contrast between the apa research paper literature review, 60s generation and us now is that people do not what the problems really are. The mentality when speaking to college students; they seem to focus more on extended essays trying to get that 80K a year job then the socio-political issues affecting us. It is literature review, evident that we value the dollar more so than we value the thesis board presentation, human struggle.

So apathy also plays a role. It is important to realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers. Sending your child to college is apa research literature, not an option in American society, and it#8217;s hardly a privilege at that. In today#8217;s fierce and fast paced world it is a necessity For most parents, thought goes into how they will even fund such a venture within the poster presentation, first few months of the paper, child#8217;s conception. College funds and savings bonds, money from relatives and graduation parties, this all gets stored until an slavery, entire portion of that funding goes towards expensive college visits. Not only apa research review, does the child want to go to college, that child has picked out 10 in which there is an, orientation at each for literature prospective parents. They want to see where their money is going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and become the successful adult they were meant to homework binder, be. What is wrong with college?

As a successful student at a prominent Chicago school, I, for paper literature one, have plenty of opinions on the matter. Let#8217;s look at #8220;our war#8221; by first taking a retrospective glance at Vietnam. My father, a student at the time of Vietnam, was a conservative at a very conservative Indiana school. Updike Response! He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the week and talked highly of the camaraderie between fellow students. Paper Literature Review! There were protests that were actually allowed on his campus.

When the students died in the Kent incident he remembers rallies against the war in their honor. He also remembers reading the names of the dead soldiers with the rest of his class, keeping in somber memory the fight his country was in. Bands of students were scared, there was a draft in effect. Everyone had war on the mind and as those 18 year olds took on their first years of extended and management college, they had a lot more to apa research literature, worry about bewerbungshilfe, than where the weekend#8217;s keg party was taking place. Apa Research! They were learning, growing, and a&p updike response essay forming opinions on the world they were entering by knowing their current events and paper review being passionate about them. Of course, without the internet, their local papers brought them more world events and less Lindsay Lohan. Slavery America! Being passionate about the world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the opinions of others so easily accessible. The internet has taken so much of this away from current students.

In my experience, you only have to apa research review, make a choice on which websites to read. Looking at our war today, many students walk away from thesis, it, choosing not even to recognize that it affects their daily world. There are many more cliques, many more places to apa research paper literature, falter, and many more reasons not to care. Hold a pen in front of you and bewerbungshilfe look at it; notice its size and color in particular. Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended. Notice anything different? Probably not, and that is how it should be. If we remember back to middle school science class, color is apa research paper literature review, partially dependent upon the angle that light hits an, object. But we just moved an object, causing the literature, angle to change from our perspective, and did not notice any change in color.

The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in size. I forgot the intricate details that explain why this happens, something to do with a portion of the brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . What I do remember, and will never forget, is how cool this all seemed and how much more there is to the world when you get past the surface. College is a pretty different place today than it was for my parents thirty years ago. Then again, so were the two worlds in which we were raised. Most kids in my generation were not raised in the Sandlot. We did not hang out at the malt shop after school. And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that).

Instead, we started out board, playing on literature jungle gyms with woodchips and protective rubber flooring underneath. Thesis Board Presentation! Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to organized baseball practice, in a minivan. Paper Literature! By high school, the homework binder, importance of getting into a good college had been seared into us and serious attention had to literature, be allocated toward after-school activities and other kinds of enriching events to make sure that we were #8220;well- rounded#8221;. Here#8217;s a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on their SATs. If they can, you win! Basically, it is like hitting the lottery, since your parents have to be like one out of reviews a million. High school students in the 60#8217;s did not pay $1,000 for an SAT class and definitely did not go to any Independent College Consultants. As Mr. Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of apa research review apart from the rest of the slavery, world. Kids went there and were met with new people, ideas, and situations.

Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on the ladder. You did not go with the mindset that it was simply a means to end, a place to simply collect good grades and then experience the #8216;director#8217;s cut redux edition#8217; of paper literature college admissions in the form of graduate school, an bewerbungshilfe, internship or a job. Why College Matters: A Response to #8220;What#8217;s the Matter With College#8221; I suppose I should begin by saying that I don#8217;t go to a real college. Paper Literature! I mean, I don#8217;t feel like I go to a real college. I don#8217;t take real classes. I don#8217;t live on a real campus. I#8217;m a music major and attend the Peabody Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. Peabody is an slavery america, established music conservatory, one of the schools of Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about it not being a #8220;real#8221; school).

In his essay, Perlstein is making it seem that today#8217;s college undergraduates and the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient. That we#8217;re missing out. He#8217;s especially concerned that we#8217;re nothing like the students of the 60s and 70s. He#8217;s right about paper review, that, but that is bewerbungshilfe, nothing to apa research, be ashamed of. We#8217;re students who want (or carry) the iPhone. We are environmental activists.

We#8217;re more technologically savvy than Perlstein#8217;s generation. We get our information and communicate in a totally different way. Poster Presentation! We#8217;re amazing jugglers. We#8217;re a new breed. It is paper, interesting to read that the response essay, defining issue for the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college. For my sake, and I#8217;m sure for the sake of a lot of my peers, I wish it were still that way. College sounded romantic and apa research fun. My friends argue that things have changed in homework binder the past 40 years, and that there are bigger fish to fry. The war, for example.

Making a living once college ends. Literature! When they start complaining, however, about classes and stress, I ask them, #8220;aren#8217;t there bigger fish to fry?#8221; at which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and throw their hands up in the air. I understand where their frustration lies. We still feel young in the scheme of things, and not ready to plan out our lives after college. In Business! It feels like we#8217;ve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of paper review high school. Who has time to worry anyway?

Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to pay the rent this month. Many of my classmates worry how to pay for the next semester. To be honest, when it came to college, most of us never really had a choice. Where I grew up, in Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the option of #8220;college vs. no college.#8221; The choice was #8220;Ivy League vs. state school,#8221; or something along those lines. The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important. As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an appetite for inquiry and thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to sample a young student#8217;s intellect. Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to reviews, my life and to my thoughts here and now, but young and impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of apa research hindsight#8230; My college experience has fostered some growth. Board! But for the nation?

Lend me some relevance. Am I to accurately describe my confusion with you over coffee to tell you how this all breaks downI fit in the puzzle and I#8217;m one of the corners, right? Politics. We don#8217;t have movements, and we don#8217;t have causes. Apa Research Paper Review! A choice between higher education and higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the whole country to read. Children live at school. Essay! Especially if they don#8217;t have much of a home life to apa research paper literature review, live in the afternoon or evening, kids live and homework binder learn at school. College isn#8217;t so different, only first graders aren#8217;t expected to shape up all by themselves when they appear to be wasting time. Oh, college students aren#8217;t either? Pity. I guess higher education isn#8217;t all that important.

Maybe the problems of higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of public schooling. Talk to Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to paper literature, wake this country up, and they#8217;ll show you what#8217;s happening to my younger brothers and sisters. Content in the shade, college students loaf, while in more dangerous environs, under the pretext that they are to learn, children sit down in their desks each morning in the arms of a crumbling system. In college, we choose to sleep in, not to participate, excel, regress, etc. If higher education is important to homework binder, the nation, why don#8217;t more people act like it?

Better yet, if education is review, so important to the nation#8217;s future, why is it neglected? Important as it is, I feel proud to a&p updike response, remember the words of Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of politicians#8217; and citizens#8217; true responsibilities: #8220;It is highly interesting to our country, and it is the duty of its functionaries, to review, provide that every citizen in it should receive an poster, education proportioned to the condition and pursuits of paper review his life.#8221; He speaks to the politician, tells him to take a good look at his fellow Americans. Essays In Business And Management! What sort of education will he provide to match the condition, the quality of life? If the quality be poor, will he stick to poor schooling until lifestyles rise to the occasion? Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to remove social studies and arts in favor of apparently year-round test preparation, for standards in English and apa research paper literature mathematics. The #8220;need to know#8221; world and the world of standardization are one in the same, and columns of darkened bubbles are in no short supply, though there#8217;s still a need to live. The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As #8220;Part of#8221; a Community. One anomaly of American society is that our universities play only a marginal role in our culture.

In other nations, like France where intellectual life is not centered on their institutions of essay education, this may come as no surprise, but the virtues of American universities are indisputable. Apa Research Paper! Academics wonder why they are allowed to be the nation#8217;s intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in the political or ethical arenas. Some are resentful of the mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in tandem with the extended essays in business, evolution of academia, did not come because the society rejected the university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the university ran out of the energy it took to function in this role. This occurred, at least partially, because those of us in apa research paper college found that the values we shared were not strong enough to unite us. From the time of Plato, the purpose of the university has not been to represent the society or culture in which it exists but to pursue truth.

Most academics, who may disagree on what truth is in literature review essence, would agree that it is a noble and worthy objective. And, since truth is their goal, many of them think themselves justified in being alienated from mainstream society. This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at the University of Idaho (to name one example), the politics of professors in the College of apa research literature review Business are not shared by the English instructors; but what the two departments have in common is their distance from America#8217;s political center. This is largely because specialists in any field, whether that field is philosophy or political science, tend to feel invalidated if anyone could reach the same conclusions that they do. It is a telling fact that, at least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers. Homework Binder! Nonetheless, this desire for academic innovation benefits the university in that it makes professors#8217; research original; it is for this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to prestige, the United States constantly is found to have the greatest number of prestigious institutions. Even so, there is another facet to paper review, a professor#8217;s job, teaching. This requirement creates a dilemma for many professors: their strenuous educations and slavery america meticulous research has caused many of them to become opinionated, but, at apa research literature review, the same time, they need to keep their students pacified while educating them in accordance with principles which the students may not share. Thus, they (and the students) learn that it is easier to ignore worldview-related issues. In searching for the least common ethical denominator among the slavery america, group, the instructors and the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to their Weltanschauungs do not apply to everyone, and, if they do, the value of placidity applies even more.

As Allan Bloom wrote in 1987, #8220;[A]lmost every student entering the university . . . says he believes . Apa Research Literature! . . Extended! that truth is relative#8221; (1). While this outlook may work in apa research paper as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an ineffective communal bond. This is because the values of the classroom are provisional andmost students cannot help but feelartificial. They haven#8217;t the power to unite the students and faculty in a&p response essay a community, which requires common interests and mores. In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and paper invited college students across the United States to respond.

Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to understand it is extended essays in business, coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the paper literature, entries in a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)

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Sample APA Papers: Literature Review - Ithaca College Library

How to Summarize, Paraphrase, and Quote from Sources. As you identify and evaluate research sources, you must make accurate notes of information you think might be useful in your essay. Literature Review? There are many ways to take notes—from jotting down single words or phrases to homework binder photocopying entire articles. Apa Research Review? (For instruction on note-taking, see “Taking Good Research Notes” in How to Research Your Topic on homework binder, this Web Site.) There are three ways of incorporating source information into your own writing: summary , paraphrase , and direct quotation . When you summarize or paraphrase, you restate in literature review your own words the idea(s) of another speaker or writer. Homework Binder? When you quote, you reproduce the exact words of another speaker or writer.

Of the three ways to introduce ideas from a source into your research papers for college and university, direct quotation is the one you should use least€”except for literature review literary essays (see Writing the Literary Essay on this Web site). When you are writing about literature, quotations from the original work(s) are the primary evidence in your argument. Literary essays can also rely on quotations from secondary sources (critics). For an example of a research essay that relies on non-fiction literature for by john response essay its sources, see Jessica Marlowe€™s €śWhat Makes You Happy?€ť on page 20 (APA format) and paper, 441 (MLA format). Before we examine how to use source information in your research papers, let’s review what plagiarism is and how to avoid it. Plagiarism is the single most troublesome problem faced by students writing research papers and by the teachers who mark them. Slavery Essay America? You can avoid it by citing (acknowledging) every piece of information that you found in the sources you used for your paper. Use an approved documentation style. See Format and apa research paper literature, Documentation on bewerbungshilfe, this Web site.

Here are the guidelines to follow: You do not need to give sources for apa research paper review facts or sayings that are common knowledge (e.g., “Edmonton is the homework binder capital of Alberta”; “Sir John A. Macdonald was Canada’s first prime minister”; “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder”). Any words taken directly from a source must be marked as a quotation, and you must give full information about the source. Literature? (See the “Quoting” section below). Facts, opinions, and ideas that you found on homework binder, the Internet, in literature review a book or article, or in any other source must be acknowledged even if you express the bewerbungshilfe information in your own words. Review? (See Format and Documentation .) Facts, opinions, and ideas that you remember reading or hearing somewhere cannot be presented as your own. If you cannot find and acknowledge a source, you should not use the america information. Note: Google is helpful in tracking down sources of information. If you aren’t sure if a fact, opinion, or idea should be acknowledged, err on the side of caution and cite it. (It’s better to be safe than sorry.) When you summarize information, you find the apa research paper review main ideas in an article, essay, report, or other document, and rephrase them.

You shorten (condense) the most important idea or ideas in the source material and express them in homework binder your own words. The purpose of summarizing is to review give the reader an overview of the thesis board presentation article, report, or chapter. If the reader is apa research paper, interested in the details, he or she will read the original. It’s hard to overstate how valuable the ability to summarize is. Note-taking in school is one form of in business and management summarizing. Abstracts of articles, executive summaries of reports, market surveys, legal decisions, research findings, and apa research paper literature review, records (called “minutes”) of meetings, to homework binder name only a few kinds of formal documents, are all summaries. Thesis statements and topic sentences are essentially summaries; so, often, are conclusions. In committee, group, or teamwork, imagination and creativity are valuable, but the ability to summarize is even more so.

There is no communication skill that you will need or use more than summarizing. In conversation, we all summarize every day: for example, with friends, you may summarize the paper literature plot of essay a movie you’ve just seen or what happened in class this morning; when your mother calls, you’ll summarize the events of the apa research past week that you want her to know about. But most of thesis poster board us are not very good at summarizing efficiently, especially in writing. Written summaries, unlike conversational ones, require planning. Summarizing effectively is a skill that doesn’t come naturally. You need to paper practise it . The work you summarize can be as short as a paragraph or a poem, or as long as a book. Bewerbungshilfe? Before you can summarize anything, you need to read and understand it. The material you summarize is usually an article, essay, or chapter (or some portion of it). Apa Research Paper Literature? A typical summary for an undergraduate research paper ranges from a few sentences to one or two paragraphs.

Here€™s how to proceed: Read through the poster board piece carefully, looking up any words you don’t understand. Write the meanings above the words they apply to. The title often identifies the literature subject of the by john article, and a subtitle usually indicates its focus. If the piece is long, the writer will often divide it into a number of smaller sections, each with its own heading. These headings usually signal key ideas. If there are no headings, pay particular attention to apa research literature the introduction, where you are likely to find an overview of the subject, together with a statement of the thesis; the topic sentence of each paragraph (topic sentences identify key ideas); and the conclusion, which often summarizes the thesis and points to its significance. In his essay “Put What Where? 2,000 Years of Bizarre Sexual Advice,” John Naish provides us with a history of sex manuals ranging from the oldest surviving examples written by the Chinese in 300 B.C. to the current mind-boggling array of books, videos, and DVDs available to board consumers at the beginning of the 21st century. Then state, in order, the author’s key ideas. After each sentence in which you identify a key idea, add in your own words any necessary explanation or clarification of that point. (The author, remember, developed each idea in his or her supporting details; your job is to condense those details into general statements that capture the apa research paper review gist of the author’s point.)

Resist the temptation to look back at the article or essay as you write your summary. Homework Binder? If you have truly understood the source you are summarizing, you should be able to literature explain each point from memory. The time to check your work against the source is bewerbungshilfe, when you’ve finished the first draft of your summary. If the author’s conclusion contains any new information (i.e., is more than a summary and memorable statement), briefly reword that information in your conclusion. Revise your draft until it is coherent, concise, and makes sense to apa research literature review someone who is unfamiliar with the original work. It’s a good idea to get someone to read through your summary to check it for clarity and completeness. Here€™s an example of summarizing in action. Turn to page 112 of bewerbungshilfe Canadian Content , where you will find Wade Davis€™s €śThe End of the paper review Wild.€ť Read this essay, highlighting the main ideas as you read. Now read our summary of this essay, below, and see how close you came to identifying what we think are its key points. In his essay, The End of the presentation Wild,€ť Wade Davis provides us with three telling examples of the destruction humans have visited on Earth€™s life forms over the last 150 years. He begins with the plight of the passenger pigeon, which once constituted 40% of North America€™s bird population.

Between 1850 and 1900, the entire population of passenger pigeons was wiped out. Then Davis turns to paper literature review the Great Plains buffalo, a species that outnumbered humans as late as 1871 but fell prey to essays and management commercial market hunters. Paper Literature? Finally, Davis recounts his own experience working as a logger in the pristine rainforest of west coast British Columbia. Davis€™s point is that humans are bringing ecological disaster to the planet. (113-115) This five-sentence paragraph (117 words) captures the gist of Davis€™s 4150 -word essay.

Admittedly, it isn€™t very interesting. All of the details that make Wade€™s piece such a compelling read are missing. Summaries are useful for slavery conveying an outline or a brief overview of paper literature someone€™s ideas, but by themselves they are not memorable. Bewerbungshilfe? Details and specifics are what stick in a reader€™s mind. These are what your own writing should provide. A summary should be written entirely in your own words. Your ability to apa research review identify and reviews, interpret the author€™s ideas is evidence of your understanding of the source you are summarizing.

If you must include a short phrase from the source because there is no other way to word it, enclose the quoted material in apa research literature review quotation marks and provide a page reference. Now that we€™ve provided you with the €śdo€™s€ť about summarizing, it€™s time to warn you about the €śdon€™ts.€ť. Introduce any ideas that are not mentioned in your source change the proportion or emphasis of the essay america ideas represented in your source introduce your own opinion of the ideas or opinions discussed in your source use the same or similar working of the ideas that you found in your source. When you paraphrase, you restate someone else’s ideas in literature your own words. Unlike a summary, a paraphrase includes both the main and supporting ideas of your source. The usual purpose of a paraphrase is to express someone else’s ideas more clearly and more simply—to translate what may be complex in the original into easily understandable prose. A paraphrase may be longer than the original, it may be about the same length, or it may be shorter. Whatever its length, a good paraphrase satisfies three criteria: It is reviews, clear, concise, and easy to understand. Occasionally, you may need to clarify technical language or explain an aphorism, a proverb, or other saying that states a principle, offers an insight, or teaches a point.

Statements that pack a lot of meaning into few words can be explained only at greater length. For example, a phrase familiar to all baseball fans is apa research literature review, €śhitting for the cycle.€ť It simply isn€™t possible to a&p by john response essay restate this phrase in three words. (It means that a batter gets a single, a double, a triple, and a home run in a single game.) To paraphrase a passage, you need to dig down through your source€™s words to the underlying ideas and then reword those ideas as clearly and apa research paper, simply as you can. Like summarizing, the ability to paraphrase is not an inborn talent; it takes patience and much practice to perfect it. But the rewards are worth your time and effort.

First, paraphrasing improves your reading skill as well as your writing skill. Second, it improves your memory. In order to updike paraphrase accurately, you must thoroughly understand what you€™ve read€”and once you understand something, you€™re not likely to forget it. Here€™s an example of review how€”and how not€”to paraphrase. Bewerbungshilfe? Let€™s assume we are writing an essay on apa research paper literature, the topic of alcoholic beverages you can make at home. To begin with, read the extended essays following passage, an excerpt from Paul Quarrington€™s €śHome Brew€ť:

Malt and paper review, yeast are all you truly need to make beer, and humankind has been making it for something like 8,000 years. (Q: What has humankind been making for 8,000 years? A: Beer!) Hops did not appear on bewerbungshilfe, the European scene until the paper review 12th century, and even at that time, there was a resistance in the form of laws forbidding their use. A&p By John? Hops are the flowers of the female hop vine (an aggressive spreader, it has earned the literature lovely nomenclature Humulus lupulus and is also known as the €śwolf of the willows€ť), and their resins and homework binder, oils impart flavour of a slightly bitter nature to the beer. (73) There are two pieces of information in this paragraph that we want to include in our essay: Humans have been making beer from malt and yeast for 8,000 years. The hops that give beer its bitter taste were a late addition to beer-making. If we are not careful, or if we don’t have much experience with paraphrasing, our first attempt at a paraphrase might look something like this: In his essay entitled €śHome Brew,€ť Paul Quarrington explains that malt and yeast are the only essentials in beer-making, an activity that humans have been doing for 8,000 years. The use of hops did not appear in apa research paper review European beer-making until the 12th century, and it was resisted by many. Hops are the flowers of the female hop vine ( Humulus lupulus , also known as €śwolf of the willows€ť), and their resins and homework binder, oils add a bitter taste to the beer. This is literature, not paraphrasing€”it€™s plagiarism.

Although we have indicated the slavery america source of the literature review information and left out Quarrington€™s stylistic flourishes, the wording is almost identical to that of the original. There are no visual or verbal cues to alert the homework binder reader that these are Quarrington€™s words, not ours. Let€™s try again. In his essay €śHome Brew,€ť Paul Quarrington tells us that for about 80 centuries, humans have been using malt and paper review, yeast to brew beer. Hops were added to European beer in in business the 12th century; in some places, laws were passed prohibiting their use. Hops are the flowers of the female hop vine, which is known both by its Latin name, Humulus lupulus , and by the name €śwolf of the willows.€ť The resins and apa research paper, oils of the homework binder hop flowers add a bitter taste to the beer. Although this version avoids much of Quarrington€™s original phrasing, it doesn€™t demonstrate any work on literature, our part.

We have replaced the source€™s words with synonyms and changed the sentences, but our paragraph is still too close to the original. An acceptable paraphrase does not pass off someone else€™s ideas as your own by changing a few words and sentence constructions. A good paraphrase goes further. It uses source information but rearranges it, rephrases it, and combines it with the writer€™s own ideas (and sometimes ideas taken from other research) to create something new. Reviews? Let€™s try once more: In €śHome Brew,€ť Paul Quarrington tells us that humans have been making beer for at review, least 8,000 years. While the only ingredients necessary to the brewing of beer are malt (made from grains) and yeast, other ingredients have been added over poster presentation time to apa research paper review enhance the taste. The most successful and persistent addition to the basic malt and yeast mixture was hops, the poster board flower of apa research paper literature review Humulus lupulus , which Europeans first introduced in poster the 12th century.

The addition of hops was not greeted with universal enthusiasm: many beer lovers believed the bitter flavour spoiled the purity of their beer. Review? In some regions, this exotic addition to the basic brew was banned by law. (73) Here we have used paraphrase to incorporate information from a published source, identified in thesis poster presentation the first sentence, into a paragraph whose topic and structure are our own. Our paraphrase is roughly the same length as the original passage. If you want to apa research literature take ideas more directly from a source, retaining the homework binder original arrangement and some of the wording, you should follow the guidelines given below for quotations. When learning to write research papers, students tend to use quotations more often than paraphrases or summaries to introduce other writers’ ideas into their own work. In fact, a good research paper (unless it is an essay on a work of literature) usually relies more heavily on summary and paraphrase than it does on quotation. If you use too many quotations, your paper will be a patchwork of the ideas of others, in their words. Very little of your own thinking will be communicated to paper the reader. Remember that the main reason teachers assign research papers is to test your ability to a&p response find, digest, and literature review, make sense of specific information about a topic.

If what you hand in consists of a string of quotations, your paper will demonstrate only the bewerbungshilfe first of these three skills. In most research papers, the ideas, facts, and apa research paper review, statistics are the important things, not the wording of an idea or the literature review explanation of facts or statistics. Occasionally, however, you will find that someone else—an expert in a particular field, a well-known author, or a respected public figure—has said what you want to say but eloquently, vividly, more memorably than you could ever hope to say it. In such cases, quotations, as long as they are short and not used too frequently , are useful in developing your topic. Carefully woven into your own paragraph, they help convince the reader of the extended essays and management validity of paper review what you have to say. Use quotations in writing the way you use salt in cooking: sparingly.

You can quote from thesis two kinds of sources— people you know, or have heard speak, or have interviewed print, electronic, or recorded materials (e.g., books, articles, CD-ROMs, Web sites, films, tapes) —and your quotation may be long or short. If the material you are quoting is apa research paper literature, more than 40 words or four typed lines, it is homework binder, a long—or block—quotation. Apa Research Review? After you have introduced it in a phrase or sentence, you begin the quoted passage on homework binder, a new line and indent all lines of the literature review quotation 10 spaces or 2.5 cm from the reviews left margin. Review? Do not put quotation marks around a block quotation . The 10-space indentation is the reader’s visual cue that this portion of the extended in business paragraph is someone else’s words, not yours. In the review paragraph that follows, prize-winning author Diane Ackerman quotes David Bodanis at some length in in business her book A Natural History of the Senses (New York: Random House, 1990: 142–43). She signals that she is quoting by indenting the paper entire passage she has borrowed from Bodanis: Committees put a lot of thought into the design of fast foods. As David Bodanis points out extended essays in business and management with such good humour in The Secret House , potato chips are.

an example of total destruction foods. The wild. attack on the plastic wrap, the slashing and. tearing you have to go through is exactly what the manufacturers wish. For the thing about crisp. foods is that they’re louder than non-crisp ones . . . Destructo-packaging sets a favourable mood. . . . Crisp foods have to apa research be loud in the upper. register. Homework Binder? They have to produce a high-frequency.

shattering; foods which generate low-frequency. rumblings are crunchy, or slurpy but not crisp. . . . Companies design potato chips to be too large to fit into the mouth, because in order to hear the high-frequency crackling, you need to keep your mouth open. Apa Research Paper Literature? Chips are 80 percent air, and each time we bite one we break open the air-packed cells of the chip, making that noise we call “crispy.” Bodanis asks: How to get sufficiently rigid cell walls to twang at these squeaking harmonics? Starch them.

The starch granules in a&p by john updike essay potatoes are identical to literature the starch in stiff shirt collars. A&p Updike Response? . Apa Research Literature Review? . Bewerbungshilfe? . [In addition to paper review starch,] all chips are soaked in fat. . . . So it’s a shrapnel of flying starch and fat that produces the conical air-pressure wave when our determined chip-muncher finally gets to homework binder finish her chomp. Notice that Ackerman is careful to tell her readers the source of her quotations. Paper Literature? To introduce the first one, she gives the author’s full name and the title of his book. To introduce the second quotation, which is from the same book, she simply identifies the author by surname. Thus, she doesn’t waste words by repeating information, nor does she leave readers wondering where the quotation came from. (The only information missing is the Bodanis book’s publication data—city, publisher, and date—which would be provided in the list of sources. (See Format and thesis board, Documentation .) A spot quotation is paper review, a word, a phrase, or a short sentence that is incorporated into one of slavery america your own sentences.

Put quotation marks before and after a spot quotation . The quotation marks are a signal to the reader that these aren’t your words; a new voice is speaking. The following paragraph from an article by Robert Fulford contains several spot quotations (The Use and Abuse of Quotations, The Globe and Mail , Nov. 11, 1992). “You are what you quote,” in the words of the American essayist Joseph Epstein, himself a heavy user of quotations and apa research paper, the writer who introduced “quotatious” into my vocabulary. Winston Churchill understood the value of a well-aimed quotation: as a young man he read a few pages of Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations every day to spruce up his style and compensate for his lack of a university education. [Gradually,] he transformed himself from a quotatious writer into the most quoted politician of the western world. . . . Fowler’s Modern English Usage warns against quoting simply to demonstrate knowledge: “The discerning reader detects it and is contemptuous,” while the undiscerning reader finds it tedious. A few years ago Garry Trudeau made fun of George Will’s compulsive quoting by inventing a researcher who served as “quote boy” in Will’s office: “‘Quote boy! Need something on the banality of contemporary society.’ ‘Right away, Dr. Will!’” . . . As for paper literature review me, I say don’t judge, because you might get judged, too. Thesis? That’s how the quotation goes, right? (C1) In addition to illustrating how to introduce and format block quotations and how to punctuate spot quotations, the examples given above also show you how to modify a quotation to fit your space and suit your purpose. Although you must quote exactly and never misrepresent or distort your source’s intention , you may, for reasons of paper literature review conciseness or smoothness, omit or add a word or phrase or even a sentence or two.

To leave out a word or words , indicate the omission by replacing the word(s) you’ve omitted with three spaced dots called ellipses (. . .). If the omission comes at the end of your sentence, add a fourth dot as the period. If you need to reviews add or change a word or words to make the quoted passage more readable within your paragraph, use square brackets around your own words, as we did when we added “[In addition to starch,]” in Ackerman’s second block quotation from Bodanis and apa research, “[Gradually,]” to Fulford’s paragraph. Another reason for changing words in a quoted passage is to keep the verb tenses consistent throughout your paragraph. If you are writing in the present tense and the passage you are quoting is in the past tense, you can change the verbs to present tense (as long as the change doesn’t distort the meaning) and put square brackets around them so the reader knows you have made these changes. Modifying short quotations to make them fit smoothly into your own sentences without altering the source’s meaning takes practice.

Reread the homework binder paragraphs we borrowed from apa research literature review Ackerman and Fulford, above. Notice that both authors omitted material to make the quoted passages shorter and easier to read, and that they have signalled these omissions to the reader by the use of extended essays in business ellipses (. Literature? . .). How to Integrate Quotations into Your Writing. When you decide to quote source material, you should introduce it so that it will blend as seamlessly as possible into your writing. Don’t simply park someone else’s words in the middle of your paragraph; you’ll disrupt the flow of bewerbungshilfe thought. If Diane Ackerman were not so skillful a writer, she might have “dumped” quotations into her paragraph instead of integrating them. Contrast the readability of the paragraph below with that of Ackerman’s second Bodanis quotation. Companies design potato chips to be too large to fit into the mouth because, in order to hear the high-frequency crackling, you need to paper keep your mouth open. Chips are 80 percent air, and each time we bite one, we break open the air-packed cells of the chip, making that crispy noise. Bewerbungshilfe? €śThe starch granules in potatoes are identical to apa research the starch in stiff shirt collars.€ť Starch is just one of the ingredients that contribute to the crispiness of potato chips. €śAll chips are soaked in fat.€ť €śSo it€™s a shrapnel of in business flying starch and fat that produces the conical air pressure wave when our determined chip-muncher finally gets to finish her chomp.€ť. Without transitional phrases, the paragraph lacks coherence and doesn’t make sense.

Not convinced? Try reading Ackerman’s version and the above version aloud. Every quotation should be introduced and integrated into an essay in a way that makes clear the paper literature review relationship between the quotation and your own argument. There are four ways to integrate a spot quotation . You can introduce it with a phrase such as “According to X,” or “Y states” (or observes , or comments , or writes ), followed by essays in business and management a comma. Literature Review? Different verbs suggest different attitudes toward the bewerbungshilfe quoted material.

For example, “Fulford suggests that writers should not overuse quotations” is more tentative than “Fulford warns that writers should not overuse quotations.” Other verbs you can use to introduce quotations are asserts, notes, points out, maintains, shows, reports, and claims . Choose your introductory verbs carefully, and be sure to use a variety of phrases. Repeating “X says,” “Y says,” and “Z says,” is a sure way to put your reader to sleep. George Bernard Shaw's poor opinion of teachers is well known: “Those who can, do; those who can't, teach.” If the passage you are quoting is a couple of apa research words, a phrase, or anything less than a complete sentence, do not use any punctuation to introduce it. Oscar Wilde defined fox hunters as the “unspeakable in full pursuit of the uneatable.” If you insert your own words into the middle of a quotation, use commas to reviews separate the source's words from yours. “It is a truth universally acknowledged,” writes Jane Austen at the beginning of Pride and apa research review, Prejudice , “that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife.” In general, periods and commas are placed inside the quotation marks (see the examples above). Unless they are part of the quoted material, colons, semicolons, question marks, exclamation marks, and essay, dashes are placed outside the quotation marks.

Use single quotation marks to mark off a quotation within a quotation. A ccording to John Robert Colombo, “The most widely quoted Canadian aphorism of all time is Marshall McLuhan’s ‘The medium is the literature message.’” Block quotations are normally introduced by a complete sentence followed by a colon (for example, “X writes as follows:”). Then you copy the essay america quotation, beginning on a new line and indenting the entire quotation 10 spaces or 2.5 cm. If your introductory statement is not a complete sentence, use a comma or no punctuation, whichever is appropriate. The passage by Diane Ackerman contains examples of both ways to introduce block quotations. Can you explain why Ackerman used no punctuation to introduce the first block quotation and a colon to introduce the apa research paper second one?

Tips on Using Quotations in Your Writing. Use quotations sparingly and for a specific purpose, such as for emphasis or to reinforce an important point. Avoid the temptation to extended essays produce a patchwork paper—one that consists of bits and pieces of apa research paper review other people's writing stuck together to reviews look like an original work. Far from impressing your readers, overuse of quotations will give them the impression you have nothing of your own to say. Be sure every quotation is an accurate reproduction of the original passage.

If you need to change or omit words, indicate those changes with square brackets or ellipses, as appropriate. Paper Review? Be sure every quotation is relevant . No matter how interesting or well worded, a quotation that does not clearly and directly relate to essay your subject does not belong in review your essay. An irrelevant quotation will either confuse readers or annoy them (they’ll think it’s padding), or both. Make clear the extended essays in business and management link between the quotation and apa research literature review, your controlling idea . Don’t assume that readers will automatically see the connection you see between the quotation and your topic sentence. Comment on the quotation so that they will be sure to make the connection you intend.

If you have used a block quotation, your explanatory comment can sometimes form the conclusion of updike your paragraph. Always identify the source of a quotation . This can be done by mentioning in your paragraph the name of the author and, if appropriate, the title of the source of the quotation. Apa Research? Include the page number(s) in a parenthetical citation.

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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. Apa Research. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for bewerbungshilfe, over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and apa research paper literature, easier. Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is homework binder called a speculating about causes essay. To write it, you will describe what happens and paper, then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and evidence.

• Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of falling in love? What causes feeling of romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older?

Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime? Why do we have short and long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and others extroverts?

Why is methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to be achievers? Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush?

Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against extended and management, their parents? Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer?

Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read?

Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities?

Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys? Why do adolescents need to establish their own identity? What type of review Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails?

Why do some animals like to essay, be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for paper literature, kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by purring and kneading?

Why do cats like to sleep in bewerbungshilfe, boxes and other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and jellyfish glow? What causes tides?

Or the wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in apa research paper review, research? Why are animals afraid of reviews humans? Why is literature review larger size an advantage for animals in colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is nature so therapeutic?

Why are insects attracted to light? Why are insects the most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against homework binder, the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in apa research literature, Africa than elsewhere?

Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the unrest in the Middle East which resulted in the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war? What caused the Great Recession of slavery 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to apa research paper literature, target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. government shut down of 2013? Why is North Korea so closed to the rest of the world?

Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and homework binder, more people moving to literature, large cities and away from essay america, rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the world.) Why has the apa research literature neo-conservative movement developed in bewerbungshilfe, American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in apa research paper literature, Germany? Why is China going to ease up on slavery essay, the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election? Why have the apa research literature police been targeted by thesis board presentation, gunmen recently in the U.S.?

Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies? Why is Twitter the literature medium of choice for Donald Trump? What caused the French Revolution? What caused the development of homework binder American slavery system? What caused the settlement of apa research paper literature Australia by a&p updike response essay, the English? What caused the colonization of apa research paper literature Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin? Why is bewerbungshilfe English the paper main language used around the essay world in business and apa research literature review, science?

Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in extended and management, religion after years of atheist communism? What caused the literature great Chinese famine in slavery essay, the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to adopt the parliamentary system?

Why does America have an educational system that is paper literature different from the European system used by most of the rest of the world? Why, according to the 2000 U.S. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to end the war? Why is it important to study history? (Depending on homework binder, how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of possible answers. Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for the title. Your answer to paper literature review, the question will be the thesis of your paper. Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in, the topic and describing the paper situation or effect.

See the chart for essay, easy introduction and conclusion ideas. Literature. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and then answering it. To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of what you will talk about in bewerbungshilfe, your essay, add a because followed by paper literature review, the three reasons you will give in the body of your essay. Body: Be careful to write the reasons in parallel format. Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an emotional release in watching and reviews, talking with other people about the apa research literature experience, and they get a vicarious thrill in seeing the forbidden on the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on one reason if you have several parts of that reason to discuss.) Topic Sentences of Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into in business full sentences. Those are your topic sentences for the body paragraphs of your essay.

Gather evidence from your own observations and from research. Conclusion: In the conclusion, you want to either urge the apa research literature reader to believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in in business, the chart below. Easy Introductions and Conclusions. Apa Research Review. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by reviews, Virginia Kearney 3.

How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. Apa Research Paper Review. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example. by Virginia Kearney 0. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and and management, Sample Essays. by apa research paper, Virginia Kearney 32. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by homework binder, Virginia Kearney 109. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 129. this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from apa research literature review, United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about writing. Poster Board. Please look at my How to Write a Cause Essay for introduction and conclusion ideas and literature review, Technology Topics for Research Essays for a&p by john updike response, more topics. Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh.

Thanks a lot for posting such a wonderful and helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to paper literature, create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to find the answers. I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. A few similar questions on and management, the technology niche.

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So many of the apa research literature people who teach the beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. I know how hard it can be to come up with good lesson plans and instructions. That is why I've decided to slavery essay america, post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in teaching for over 20 years. Hezekiah 3 years ago from Japan. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at apa research paper, Uni or High School. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of paper their respective owners.

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Free Essays on Modern Day Slavery. O'Neill 1 Warren O'Neill Professor Scheckner CRWT 102-02 8 February 2013 Fighting Oppression in Immokalee, Florida: Days of Revolt Days of Destruction Days of Revolt was written by two war veterans, Chris Hedges and Joe Sacco. In this book, they basically describe and make readers feel like they. the institution of apa research paper, slavery and the attitudes about slavery . I put these eight documents into two groups and those are for slavery and by john updike neutral attitude thought about slavery . These eight documents are all sorted by attitude and are going to be from the beginning of time to modern day . The first group. Modern Sex Slavery Modern slavery is a group of paper, words that most Americans might not be familiar with. Essay! Millions of people assume that slavery ended with the African slave trade, and the Emancipation Proclamation, but there is paper literature review a lot of information that people are blind to. Slavery is defined as the practice.

Without slavery , music would not sound the same. Homework Binder! Discuss. The blues is the apa research literature music made by slaves. It was the first type of music, and it was created by normal people when they were forced into slavery many centuries ago. When more than 12 million African slaves were taken over to thesis presentation, America countries. Working Definition of Slavery The issue of apa research paper, slavery has been debated since its early inception.

In recent times, there has been considerable debate as to the definition of slavery . Western scholars have attempted to justify slavery of the New World by comparing it to the slavery that existed in Biblical. The Cultural Effects of the Sugar Industry in Latin America and the Caribbean Slavery , Abolition and New Cultures European greed for slavery wealth and expansion of powers lasting over a span of several centuries in the New World was a major link between African diasporas and the sugar industry. Slavery in the Carolinas By the mid 18th century the American colonies were enjoying the prosperity their economy was bringing them. One major industry that profited both the colonies as well as the British Empire was mercantilism. Two of the paper literature review most profitable crops, rice and indigo, came from South. and who they’re going to end up with. They’re lives are already difficult but illnesses and reviews diseases can make it a lot more difficult.

They live day by apa research paper review, day not knowing what’s going to happen next. Sometimes, slaves are treated more like animals than humans. Poster Presentation! Other times, they were treated with a little. Slavery late more than 50 decades if you have ever seen a slavery movie you know that the masters slept with there property. Not all , just most . I wasnt really coming here to write a paper , essay whatever. I came here to look for a little something to motivate me and get a feel for something but. What Were the apa research literature Causes of Slavery Through Colonial Era.

Slavery has been a great controversial issue throughout the history of the United States, issues that began centuries ago during the colonial era. Reviews! Although slavery began for apa research labor purposes and to benefit the economy, the result of slavery during early history had great impacts, some of which were racism. Africa and the Atlantic world explores the trials and a&p by john response essay tribulations of Africans being forced from their homeland and sold into slavery . Africans endured such hardships and conditions that their souls vanished with the apa research paper site of mother Africa. Europeans sold and forced slaves to cultivate sugar plantations. Slave driver shows the painful past this country has seen, and if it has really changed? This country has seen some dark pasts, from extended and management, war to paper, slavery , they are memories which hurt. Thesis Poster Board! Diary entries from a slave driver have been found and released to the public, the graphic entries show the drivers view on. Slavery in paper review the United States.

Essay. Jason Chavez HIST 290 Prof. A&p By John Updike Essay! Belsky Historians normally date the start of slavery in the North American colonies to 1619. Review! That year, a Dutch ship carrying African slaves docked at Point Comfort, which served as Jamestown's checkpoint for ships wanting to thesis, trade with the colonists. The crew of apa research paper, the.

Human trafficking and the Modern-Day Slave Trade. Human Trafficking and the Modern - Day Slave Trade Human trafficking, or what is known as modern - day slavery , has a global impact on millions of women and young girls around the world. Apa Research Review! In the United States and poster board presentation abroad, women being abducted and sold into the slave trade is any everyday occurrence that. In how many ways can slavery be express and utilize in modern day ? A few, or rather, more than a handful, but the most unethical form of out of all is sex trafficking, braching from the act and business of human trafficking. Human trafficking is exactly what it is, trafficking in person, where the victims. greedy adults, and big companies such as Nike, Hanes, Puma, and etc. Paper! There are children in this world who don’t have a choice but to work since the bewerbungshilfe day they can walk, talk and be able to do things are there own. All these are suppose to paper literature, be great accomplishments for a child, happy moments but sadly in. Introduction Slavery in North America was one of the harsh ways the U.S came to be. In reality without slavery America would have been nothing but it wasn’t an excuse it was just wrong. Bewerbungshilfe! The first blacks came from Africa; better yet they were taken from their homeland and brought here to America.

Slavery : A Brief History Most people believe slavery started in the States but it is as ancient as mankind is. Slavery started over 5,000 years ago in Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, China, India, and Arabia. Apa Research Literature! Ever since then it has been practiced ever since. A&p Response! So slavery did NOT start in the the literature U.S it. Black Response to homework binder, Slavery Europeans of the past have always looked down upon other cultures. When Europeans first came across the Indians they thought they were savages. Apa Research Literature Review! Their initial reaction was to slavery, take the gold from apa research literature review, these lesser humans, clothe them more appropriately, and convert them to their religion. Slavery Justifications and Counter-Arguments Throughout history the act of slavery has been established since the ancient time. Such a belief was considered normal and important for the development of a society, which also applies to America since the 16th.

However, as America was believed. Slavery Destroyed Relationships with the Families of the Slaves. 1) Slavery destroyed relationships with the families of the bewerbungshilfe slaves. Literature! -I say that slavery in any form is degrading to humanity; that it is cruel wrong done to one’s own neighbor, and that to acquire slaves and hold them as property, wars must be waged, homesteads must be destroyed, families must be broken. What If Slavery Had Never Existed I have always wondered one thing what if slavery had never existed. Yes slavery was horrible, but if you think about it what else did we get from slavery ? Slavery influenced almost everything so what would be different if it had never existed? If you think. 21, 2007 Biographical Essay Assignment It was a hot blistering summer day not a leaf in sight or a hint of shade to be found. Poster Board! Mouth is apa research review dry as cotton from thirst and hands bleeding and blistering from a hard days work, exhausted from fatigue and hunger, because Master had me out here since the. (relative to the observer) which varies greatly and can‘t be proven (100%) to anyone other than the perceiver him/her self. The South’s justification of homework binder, slavery was a good example of paper, these variations in perception, as I’m sure many plantation owners would have argued that owning slaves was necessary to “self.

Communicative Campaigns to Effect Anti-Slavery and Fair Trade: the Cases of Rugmark and thesis board Cafedirect. Pierre Mcdonagh. effects of slavery , in all its forms, and child labor on marketing activities. According to apa research paper literature, the abstract, “This inquiry examines the challenge for marketers to foster both anti- slavery and fair trade”, while conceding on child labor. (McDonagh, P., “Communicative campaigns to, effect anti- slavery and fair. History 17B Negotiations of Slavery. History 17B Tues 3PM Slavery , the peculiar institution, existed but a few decades ago as perhaps the most divisive issue ever to befall the United States. Upon approaching the topic of slavery , it is commonplace to view the review relationship between slaves and masters as one of ultimate power favoring. Kinship and Godparenthood: the Effect of Organized Plantation Labor on the Afro-Caribbean Slave Society’s Family Structure. through time and across national boundaries.

These plantations were most commonly run with 100 or so slaves, although the number varied from 50 to 200 ( Slavery , 5). Despite this range, they all shared such basic features as the lack of sexual division of labor in fieldwork and the use of supervised “gangs”. Does “Black Poetry” Exists, or It Is Just Poetry That Is Written by Black People? scale, but it has to reviews, do with the long and ongoing process of discrimination against apa research literature review black people, which is homework binder still rooted in the white cultures of the modern world. When it comes to black poetry, we have to admit that the apa research literature review African roots have had a strong impact not just with the distinct tone and rhythm. trafficking is the fastest increasing criminal industry now in day worldwide, coming in second after drug trafficking. What is human trafficking?

Human trafficking is being forced to do something. It is also commonly referred to as “ modern - day slavery .” Human trafficking is the illegal trade of essays and management, human beings. and Contrast Paper Authors of pass and present times utilize things to help convey their work. Literature! Even today, their themes play an activate role in modern society. Frederick Douglass, in bewerbungshilfe the Narrative of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave is review a powerful example of the extended essays and management theme family. Although Douglass’. Trafficking Victims Protection Act. Do You Remember the 13th Amendment? Slavery has been in review commission ever since the biblical era with the Old Testament documenting forced labor in Egypt. There is a good chance that one might go as far as to state that slavery might have even been in place before written historical records. Nevertheless.

Discuss the Differences Betwwen African Slavery and Indian Indenture. This compelled them to focus on the slave trade from Africa, which was a common practice at this time. In 1833, the campaign for the abolition of slavery was successful. This again resulted in a labour shortage. The British Emancipation Act allowed for a&p essay the ex-slaves to work on the plantations for wages. Slavery: One of the apa research paper Big Issues in America. Frederick Douglass Slavery is one of the big issues in America. Frederick Douglass was one of the American slaves. He wrote a book call “Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass.” This book is one of the popular books in America because it is about Douglass’s life and how slaves and he were.

Carmien Penny Cultural Geography J. Plymell April 9, 2012 A Day Trip I was never interested in United States history. I know it sounds bad, but I always found it dreadfully boring. A large part of this indifference I blame on my high school history teachers, who were coaches. They were all. issue discussed in all seven debates was slavery . In agreeing to by john, the debates, Lincoln and apa research paper review Douglas wanted to hold one debate in each of the nine Congressional Districts in Illinois.

Because both had already spoken in two — Springfield and Chicago — within a day of each other, they decided that their joint. Slavery between 1450-1800 and the influence of it on the Old World Web. ? Slavery in Africa and the influence of it on the Old World Web Slavery is nowadays considered as one of the homework binder biggest injustice a person could do to another human being. However, slavery is apa research paper as old as the human itself. This essay will focus on poster board the development of slavery between 1450 and 1800, specifically. Modern Day Slavery Upon seeing our discussion topic this week, Slavery was not limited to plantation life in the United States, because it still exists in the world today”. I was in apa research literature disbelief, and thought maybe it was a typo. How could there possibly still be human beings, being own by other human. ? Slavery Traditional African practices of slavery were altered to some extent beginning in the 7th century by two non-African groups of slave traders: Arab Muslims and extended essays and management Europeans. From the 7th to apa research literature review, the 20th century, Arab Muslims raided and traded for homework binder black African slaves in West, Central, and East Africa.

?Ana Mendoza Due: 11/25/14 HST 101H Prof. Calabrese Final Paper Slavery has existed since the beginning of time. Slavery was a system put in place that allowed people to apa research paper review, be treated property. Essays! In most cases, slaves could be bought and sold. People would acquire slaves through capture, purchase, or. institution of slavery in literature the world from the beginning civilization to the dawn of modern times were various views.

Some of the views came from people who accepted it and bewerbungshilfe some came from apa research review, great sources that did not accept it. But there were even some that did not have an opinion about slavery . The source’s. Slavery Essay From the america 17th century until the 19th century, almost twelve million Africans were brought to the New World against their will to perform back-breaking labour under terrible conditions. The British slave trade was eventually abolished in 1807 (although illegal slave trading would continue. to have contributed the most to modern society: the Classical civilization and apa research paper review the Medieval civilization.

Some say that Classical civilization contributed more to society, an argument which has some merit, although not all of those contributions are relevant in essay america modern society. Paper Review! Inventions such as forging. ?Sean Gehant End of Slavery U.S. Slavery! History Feb. Paper Review! 11th 2014 End of Slavery This paper is about slavery and the reasons why the civil war ended it.

After decades of the south’s extensions of slavery , our nation ran into a civil war. In 1861, South Carolina was the first state to secede. her rights and earned the respect from everybody. This story about Elizabeth Freeman teach us how strong slavery used to be back in bewerbungshilfe the days . Many women like Freeman tried to obtain their freedom by escaping from their master or by seeking legal help, . Cause of slavery What caused the slavery in America? The answer to paper review, this question is simple. Americans somehow decided to thesis board presentation, use a black man as working hand. They do not consider African Americans. 2010 Modern Slavery in America “Each year human trafficking and slavery in America generate millions upon apa research paper review, millions of dollars for criminals who prey on the most vulnerable: the desperate, the uneducated, and slavery essay america the impoverished immigrant seeking a better life. Brutalized and held in slavery for years. African- American History during the paper literature month of February and essays hence Black History Month. One of the biggest issues and most historic diaspora in apa research literature the pre- modern times was the African Diaspora that began at the start of 16th century.

African population at the time of Atlantic Slave Trade were dispersed and transported. How Does the Life Writing of Equiano and the Poetry of Cowper Strategically Use the Rhetoric of Sensibility in Their Anti-Slavery Writing of the Late Eighteenth Century? How does the extended essays in business life writing of Equiano and the poetry of Cowper strategically use the rhetoric of sensibility in their anti- slavery writing of the late eighteenth century? From the mid-eighteenth century a cult of apa research literature, sensibility was largely defining the newly emerging, polite, sociable and affable culture. Black Odyssey: The Ordeal of Slavery in America: Review. too admit that the majority of slaves, accepting the realities of reviews, power, sought to create a meaningful life within slavery . Runaways and rebels, although understandably the heroes of modern black America, were not necessarily so to their contemporaries, for they brought down the indiscriminate violence. HIS 204 WEEK 1 DQ 1 THE HISTORY OF RECONSTRUCTION – NEW. 204 WEEK 1 DQ 1 THE HISTORY OF RECONSTRUCTION - NEW Ashford 2: - Week 1 - Discussion 1 Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. ? Slavery still EXISTS! Three trends have contributed most to literature review, the rise of modern - slavery . The first, a recent population explosion has tripled the number of a&p essay, people in the world, with most growth taking place in the developing world.

The second, rapid social and economic change, have displaced. Slavery: Slavery and apa research paper review United States. Slavery Essay Marc-Andre Sheridan-Wall Sarah Bean Introduction to bewerbungshilfe, Anthropology December 5ht 2011 Slavery is defined as “The state of one bound in servitude as the paper review property of a slaveholder or household.”(Free Dictionary) People have been enslaved since the beginning of civilization. Homework Binder! Generally. of slavery as a thing of the past, something that would happen in a “colonial” time period. We fail to paper review, recognize and slavery understand that slavery , in the truest definition, is quickly and secretly flourishing like never before in the history of mankind. Our society tends to falsely stereotype slavery as an. Mckenzie Gorbet Unit II part I 6/7/2012 Slavery In Mexico In 1519, the conquistador Hernan Cortes brought Juan Cortes, the first African slave, to Mexico. Many decedents of Mexico took him for a god considering they had never seen such dark skin before.

Though he was the first, he was not the. Slavery Slavery . One of the harshest and most cruel ideas any human being has ever fathomed. The idea of bringing slavery to the Americas was one of the worst if not THE worst practices to have ever taken place in the history of our hemisphere. People torn from their native land(s), shipped across hundreds. Child Trafficking Human trafficking is an illegal form of modern day slavery . Child slavery is apa research review a contemporary global problem where children are being used for forced labor as well as prostitution. Child trafficking victims may be subjected to various forms of exploitation. These consist of child prostitution. American Slavery: Immoral and poster board Profitable. American Slavery : Immoral and Profitable American slavery became a profitable but controversial institution. Apa Research Review! Slavery in slavery america my opinion was never a good thing regardless of time, place or race.

I’ve always felt American slavery was wrong because it held human beings in apa research review bondage under inhumane conditions for. 2014 21st Century Slavery What comes to mind when you hear the word slavery ? Most people think of homework binder, early American history when slave trade was a large part of American life, some think of modern day slavery like human trafficking or child slavery . The Webster dictionary defines slavery as, submission. Why the apa research paper literature Industrial Revolution First Occured in Britain. slave trade- would rapidly depopulate Africa, but due to introduction of American crops, the slavery essay america overall population of Africa actually increased in early modern times. However, the regions closest to active slave ports, primarily Seneca and literature review Angola, were severely affected (Gordon, page 562.) Oh those taken.

Title: Project 1 Date of submission: 19 May 2007 Course Name: African American History Project 1 Institution of Slavery and the Civil War History is the poster board root for all origins of life; every race that I have ever had to study had an exact beginning point, except for my people. Apa Research Review! We.

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Log Delivery Service API Resources. The Log Delivery Service API enables you to retrieve logs for apa research paper literature, your content on the Akamai edge platform. Bewerbungshilfe? You can view, update, and literature review delete scheduled log deliveries. Additionally, you can adjust details of your log delivery (your log delivery configuration) including the poster board schedule, log format, delivery mechanism, aggregation method, data completion thresholds, residual data delivery, and paper literature review requests for redelivery. You should be familiar with the following LDS concepts: Log Sources . In Business And Management? Log sources are all the business objects for which log delivery can be set up, called a logSourceType . Currently available log sources are CP code, DNS zones, domains for Traffic Management, and AnswerX objects. Apa Research Paper Literature Review? Akamai collect logs for the log sources and sends them as defined in the log delivery configurations you configure in this API. Each log source has a type and a unique ID.

Configurations . You can create one LDS configuration for each log source. Once you initially configure an Akamai service for homework binder, log delivery, you can view, edit, and suspend and reactivate that log delivery configuration. Aggregation . Log deliveries can be aggregated by arrival time or by calendar day. Aggregating by arrival time sends log data in the order in which it arrives from Akamai’s edge platform. This is the fastest way to get log data, but it is more difficult to process. Paper Literature? For example, a delivery that covers a 24-hour period usually contains some data from the previous several days. Aggregating by calendar day sends most of the hits for board, each GMT calendar day in a single delivery. Apa Research Paper Literature? You can set a completion threshold at which you want logs set, and reviews whether you want residual data sent later. Completion Threshold . The completion threshold determines the percentage of expected logs to process before you receive the apa research paper log data. Setting a high threshold value ensures that the delivered data is as complete as possible, but might cause deliveries to be delayed to meet the threshold.

Setting a lower threshold value ensures more timely deliveries, but more of the data (residual data) might be deferred to a leftover delivery. Residual data . You can choose to receive deliveries containing leftover log lines that were not included in either the bulk delivery or a previous leftover delivery. Delivery Method . You can receive log data via email or FTP. Message Size . Logs are broken into apa research paper, parts before compression, so the estimation of updike response essay message size is based on literature, the uncompressed file size. Compressed message size options range from thesis poster presentation 1–50 MB compressed (approximately 6–300 MB uncompressed.) Encoding . LDS offers three encoding options: gzipped and uuencoded, MIME with base–64 encoding, and GPG Encrypted (which requires you to upload a key). Apa Research Literature? Otherwise, the thesis board presentation main difference is support by review, mail clients. Your encoding options depend on whether you are receiving log delivery via email or FTP.

Note that AnswerX Managed, AnswerX Cloud, and Enterprise Threat Protector services support only GPG encoding. Contacts . LDS requires that you provide email and phone number contact information for announcements about changes to LDS as well as automated delivery failure notices. It is important that you check this email frequently to diagnose and literature review correct delivery failures, as well as arrange log redeliveries if necessary. Redeliveries . You can request redelivery of a log for a specific configuration and thesis poster presentation a designated time period for paper literature, which you want logs sent again. Note that Akamai sends log redeliveries at bewerbungshilfe, a lower priority than normal log deliveries, and you may not request a redelivery until the original log delivery is complete. The intervals at which redeliveries are sent depends on whether you choose aggregating by arrival time or calendar day when setting up log deliveries. If you aggregate by arrival time, you can choose the date, start, and literature end times for the redeliveries, which will be sent at the same frequency as the essays original delivery configuration. Paper? If you aggregate by calendar day, you can choose a date for the redelivery; you can request calendar day redeliveries only for an entire day, so there will be no start and end times option. You typically follow this workflow to create a new configuration for log delivery.

Run the List Log Sources operation to reviews, retrieve all available log sources and associated ID numbers to apa research paper, which you have access. Retrieve the parameter values necessary to create a log delivery configuration. You need to retain the associated IDs to build a valid request object for the configuration. Run the List Log Formats Per ID operation to retrieve all available log formats and homework binder associated log source IDs for this logSourceType and logSourceId . Run the apa research literature review List Log Encodings operation to retrieve the id for the desired encoding type. Run the List Delivery Frequencies operation to reviews, retrieve the id for desired delivery frequency. Run the List Message Sizes operation to retrieve the paper literature review id for the desired log delivery message size. Run the List Contacts operation to homework binder, retrieve id values for paper literature review, the desired contacts. Retrieves a specific log delivery configuration. GET / lds-api/ v3/ log-configurations/

Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-configurations/ 163842. Status 200 application/json. Store the homework binder logSourceType and logSourceId from the appropriate object in that listing. Run the List Log Configurations by Type operation to retrieve a list of log configurations for apa research paper, that log source type. Store the appropriate logConfigurationId from that listing. Make a GET request to america, / lds-api/ v3/ log-configurations/ . The response object includes the full representation of the configuration with the specified logConfigurationId . Modifies a specific log delivery. Review? You need to specify all the slavery data members in the request, or missing members are removed from the paper review configuration. The response’s Location header reflects where you can access the new configuration. PUT / lds-api/ v3/ log-configurations/

Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-configurations/ 163842. Store the logConfigurationId from the appropriate object in that listing. When creating the request object, include all required members for the LogConfiguration object. Make a PUT request to / lds-api/ v3/ log-configurations/ . Deletes a specific log delivery configuration. DELETE / lds-api/ v3/ log-configurations/ Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-configurations/ 163842. Store the logSourceType for the appropriate object from that listing. Make a GET request to /lds-api/v3/log-sources/ /log-configurations to get a list of configurations for reviews, that logSourceType and their associated configuration IDs. You need the logConfigurationId to make the DELETE request. Store the logConfigurationId for the appropriate object in that listing.

Make a DELETE request to / lds-api/ v3/ log-configurations/ . Copies a specific log delivery configuration to paper literature review, a target log source to produce a new log delivery configuration. Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-configurations/ 163842/ copy. Store the logSourceType and bewerbungshilfe logSourceId from the appropriate object in that listing. Paper? You need to homework binder, identify the target source in literature review the request object. Store the logConfigurationId from the appropriate object in that listing. Make a POST request to / lds-api/ v3/ log-configurations/ / copy . Suspends log delivery for a specific configuration. Apa Research Literature Review? You will not receive logs for this configuration while it is suspended. POST / lds-api/ v3/ log-configurations/ / suspend. Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-configurations/ 163842/ suspend. Store the reviews logConfigurationId from the appropriate object in that listing.

Make a POST request to apa research, / lds-api/ v3/ log-configurations/ / suspend . Resumes log delivery for a specific configuration. POST / lds-api/ v3/ log-configurations/ / resume. Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-configurations/ 163842/ resume. Store the logConfigurationId from the essays and management appropriate object in that listing. Make a POST request to paper review, / lds-api/ v3/ log-configurations/ / resume . Returns all available delivery frequencies, each with an id and descriptive value . You need the id to create or modify a log delivery configuration. GET / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ delivery-frequencies. Status 200 application/json. Make a GET request to / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ delivery-frequencies to retrieve a list of review delivery frequency options value and id . Store the america id to use when creating or updating a log delivery configuration. Returns a specific delivery frequency. GET / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ delivery-frequencies/ Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ delivery-frequencies/ 1.

Status 200 application/json. Store the id from the appropriate delivery frequency in that listing. Make a GET request to review, / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ delivery-frequencies/ . Returns all available log delivery thresholds, each with an essays id and descriptive value . GET / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ delivery-thresholds. Status 200 application/json. Make a GET request to / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ delivery-thresholds retrieve a list of delivery threshold options value and id . Store the apa research literature delivery threshold id to in business, use when creating or updating a log delivery configuration. Returns a specific log delivery threshold.

GET / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ delivery-thresholds/ Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ delivery-thresholds/ 1. Status 200 application/json. Store the id from the appropriate delivery threshold in review that listing. Make a GET request to / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ delivery-thresholds/ . Returns a specific log format. You need this id to specify the thesis poster presentation log format for a log delivery configuration. GET / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ log-formats/ Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ log-formats/ 1.

Status 200 application/json. Store the logSourceType from the appropriate object in that listing. Make a GET request to / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources/ / log-formats . Store the logFormatId from the appropriate object in that listing. Make a GET request to / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ log-formats/ . Returns all available log encoding options. You can restrict the literature response by specifying optional values for the deliveryType and logSourceType , since available encoding types are based on slavery essay america, these characteristics of a log delivery configuration. GET / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ encodings. Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ encodings?deliveryType=email logSourceType=cpcode-products. Status 200 application/json.

You can optionally limit the apa research paper allowable encodings returned by deliveryType , either email or ftp . You can optionally limit the allowable encodings returned by logSourceType . Run the List Log Sources by Type operation and store the appropriate logSourceType from that listing. Make a GET request to / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ encodings . The response lists the homework binder allowable encoding options for the specified deliveryType and logSourceType . Store the paper literature review encoding id to reviews, use when creating and apa research paper literature modifying log delivery configurations. Returns a specific log encoding. GET / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ encodings/ Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ encodings/ 1. Status 200 application/json. Store the id from the appropriate encoding in essay america that listing. Make a GET request to / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ encodings/ . Returns all available message sizes, each with an paper literature id and slavery essay descriptive value . You need the review id to create or modify a log delivery configuration. GET / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ message-sizes. Status 200 application/json. Make a GET request to / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ message-sizes . The response lists the available message sizes with a value and reviews id . Store the message size id to use when creating and modifying log delivery configurations.

Retrieves a specific message size. GET / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ message-sizes/ Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ message-sizes/ 1. Status 200 application/json. Store the appropriate message size id from that listing. Make a GET request to / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ message-sizes/ . Returns all contacts to which you have access.

GET / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ contacts. Status 200 application/json. Make a GET request to / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ contacts . Store the apa research paper literature review contactId from the appropriate object in that listing for use in creating or modifying a log delivery configuration. Returns a specific contact, assuming the identity associated with the API client has access to it. GET / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ contacts/ Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-configuration-parameters/ contacts/ 1–2LPWVP.

Status 200 application/json. Store the contactId from the appropriate object in that listing. Make a GET request to /lds-api/v3/log-configuration-parameters/contacts/ . Retrieves a list of requests to redeliver logs. GET / lds-api/ v3/ log-redeliveries. Status 200 application/json. Make a GET request to essay america, / lds-api/ v3/ log-redeliveries/ . The response object returns a list of all log redelivery requests with their associated IDs. Creates a new request to paper review, resend a log. POST / lds-api/ v3/ log-redeliveries. Store the logConfigurationId from the appropriate object in that listing. This is the log delivery configuration for which you want to request that the essays logs be redelivered.

When creating the apa research literature review request object, you need to specify the logConfiguration , beginTime , endTime , and redeliveryDate members. See the bewerbungshilfe Redelivery object type for details. Make a POST request to / lds-api/ v3/ log-redeliveries/ . Retrieves a specific log redelivery request. GET / lds-api/ v3/ log-redeliveries/ Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-redeliveries/ 13526. Status 200 application/json. Store the redeliveryId from the appropriate object in that listing. Make a GET request to apa research review, / lds-api/ v3/ log-redeliveries/ . Returns all log sources ( logSourceType ) and log source ID ( logSourceId ) to homework binder, which the user has access. Paper? You need the logSourceType and logSourceId to create a log delivery configuration.

GET / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources. Status 200 application/json. Make a GET request to bewerbungshilfe, / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources/ to retrieve all available log sources to apa research literature review, which you have access. Store the reviews logSourceType and logSourceId to use when creating or modifying a log delivery configuration. Returns all log sources of the specified logSourceType , one of cpcode-products , gtm-properties , edns-zones , or answerx-objects . GET / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources/

Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources/ cpcode-products. Status 200 application/json. Make a GET request to / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources/ to retrieve all available log sources to which you have access. Determine the paper literature logSourceType from the bewerbungshilfe response. Make a GET request to / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources/ . Use the logSourceId for a given logSourceType to create a log delivery configuration. Returns all log delivery configurations of a given logSourceType . Apa Research Paper? You would need the logConfigurationId to modify a log delivery configuration. GET / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources/ / log-configurations.

Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources/ cpcode-products/ log-configurations. Status 200 application/json. Store the logSourceType from the appropriate object in that listing. Make a GET request to / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources/ / / log-configurations . The response object includes a list of all log delivery configurations with the specified logSourceType and logSourceId . Returns all available log formats for essay, the specified logSourceType type. Apa Research Paper? You need the Id of bewerbungshilfe log format to create new log delivery configurations. GET / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources/ / log-formats. Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources/ cpcode-products/ log-formats. Status 200 application/json. Store the apa research literature logSourceType from the appropriate object in that listing.

Make a GET request to homework binder, / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources/ / log-formats . The response object lists the available log format options for the specified logSourceType . Store the id of the desired log format to use when creating or modifying log delivery configurations. Retrieves all allowable log encodings. GET / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources/ / encodings. Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources/ cpcode-products/ encodings?deliveryType=email. Status 200 application/json. You can optionally limit the allowable encodings returned by deliveryType , either email or ftp . Make a GET request to /lds-api/v /log-sources/encodings/ . The response lists the allowable encoding options for the specified deliveryType . Store the encoding id to use when creating and modifying log delivery configurations. Get a log source of a given logSourceType type and logSourceId . Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources/ cpcode-products/ 124. Status 200 application/json. Store the logSourceType and logSourceId from the appropriate object in that listing. Get all log configurations of given logSourceType and logSourceId . Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources/ cpcode-products/ 124/ log-configurations. Status 200 application/json.

Store the logSourceType and apa research literature logSourceId from the appropriate object in extended essays and management that listing. Make a GET request to apa research paper review, / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources/ / / log-configurations . The response object includes a list of all log delivery configurations with the specified logSourceId . Creates new log configuration. The response’s Location header reflects where you can access the new configuration. Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources/ cpcode-products/ 124/ log-configurations. Store the logConfigurationId from the appropriate object in homework binder that listing. Run the Get a Log Configuration operation if you need to review this configuration’s parameters before modifying them. When creating the apa research paper request object, you need to specify the full representation of the log delivery configuration. To omit any member is to remove it from the log configuration. Make a POST request to / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources/ / / log-configurations . Gets log formats of given logSourceType and logSourceId . Sample : / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources/ cpcode-products/ 124/ log-formats.

Status 200 application/json. Store the logSourceType and logSourceId from the appropriate object in that listing. Make a GET request to / lds-api/ v3/ log-sources/ / / log-formats . The response object lists the available log format options for the specified logSourceId . Bewerbungshilfe? Store the log format id to use when creating or modifying log delivery configurations.