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Essays on environmental sustainability

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bios resume on ring AwardBIOS #153; Setup for 4.51 Bios. This page lists Setup fields found in the following Setup screens: Standard CMOS BIOS Features Chipset Features Power Management PNP/PCI Configuration Integrated Peripherals. For other setup functions such as setting a password, IDE hard drive detection, saving values, resetting defaults, exiting setup etc., see the essays, appropriate AwardBIOS Setup Guide: AwardBIOS Setup Manuals. The following are links to Acrobat file versions of various AwardBIOS Setup manuals. If you do not have the grade an essay, Acrobat Reader, you can download it now. AwardBIOS Setup manual for on environmental, releases prior to August 1996 -- This manual explains Setup options common to all AwardBIOS 4.51 releases including standard CMOS memory settings, BIOS features, and password screens. Grade An Essay. It also includes descriptions of other Setup functions, such as loading default values and configuring IDE hard drives. Explanations of BIOS POST codes and error messages are also included. Chipset-specific features are not described. AwardBIOS Setup manual for releases after July 1996 -- See table below. The table below lists manuals that explain specific Setup functionality for newer AwardBIOS products.

The table is essays on environmental arranged by BIOS part numbers and chipset names. You can determine the part number of your AwardBIOS by watching the screen after turning on your PC. While the PC's memory is tested you will see the release date, the part number, and other BIOS information at labour, the bottom of the sustainability, screen. Hint - use the PAUSE key to inspirational, stop the BIOS software execution. The part number is used to determine the chipset and essays sustainability, match it to the correct manual (a lowercase 'x' represents an college, unimportant character in a part number). DRAM Write Burst Timing. During the address phase at essays on environmental, the beginning of a PCI read/write transaction.

Following the address phase of introduction labour essay a CPU LOCK cycle When this field is Enabled, the Passive Release and Delayed Transaction fields should be Enabled. NOTE: We recommend that you select type AUTO for essays on environmental sustainability, all drives. Child. The BIOS can automatically detect the specifications and optimal operating mode of almost all IDE hard drives. When you select type AUTO for on environmental, a hard drive, the BIOS detects its specifications during POST, every time the system boots. If you do not want to select drive type AUTO, other methods of selecting the drive type are available: Match the specifications of valparaiso essay your installed IDE hard drive(s) with the preprogrammed values for drive types 1 through 45. Select USER and enter values into each drive parameter field. Use the IDE HDD AUTO DECTECTION function in Setup. Here is essays on environmental a brief explanation of drive specifications: Type: The BIOS contains a table of pre-defined drive types. Each defined drive type has a specified number of cylinders, number of heads, write precompensation factor, landing zone, and number of teachers sectors. Drives whose specifications do not accommodate any pre-defined type are classified as type USER. Size: Disk drive capacity (approximate).

Note that this size is usually slightly greater than the size of essays a formatted disk given by a disk-checking program. Cyls: Number of cylinders Head: Number of heads Precomp: Write precompensation cylinder Landz: Landing zone Sector: Number of unique essay sectors Mode: Auto, Normal, large, or LBA Auto: The BIOS automatically determines the on environmental, optimal mode. Normal: Maximum number of cylinders, heads, and three types, sectors supported are 1024, 16, and 63. Large: For drives that do not support LBA and on environmental, have more than 1024 cylinders. Applicable to only a few drives. LBA (Logical Block Addressing): During drive accesses, the IDE controller transforms the child essay, data address described by sector, head, and cylinder number into a physical block address, significantly improving data transfer rates. For drives with greater than 1024 cylinders. Init Display First.

IR Function Duplex. IRQ8 Break [Event From] Suspend. ISA Bus Clock Frequency. Essays. Master Byte Swap Control. RAM is the computer's working memory, where the computer stores programs and data currently being used, so they are accessible to the CPU. Modern personal computers may contain up to 64 MB, 128 MB, or more. When you Enabled monitoring (checking) of a device listed under this category, it is included in the list of devices that the system monitors during the PM timers count-down. Essays. When you Disable monitoring (checking) of essays on environmental a device listed under this category, activity does not interrupt the PM timers count-down. For information about parallel port modes and IEEE 1284 - 1994 Standards , visit Warp Nine Engineering. This table describes each power management mode: RAS Precharge Time. University Admissions Essay. RAS Pulse Width Refresh.

SDRAM CAS Latency Time. Select the operation of the power button, when pressed: Deturbo. System slows; press a key to return to full power. Break. System enters Suspend mode; press a key to return to full power. Break/Wake. On Environmental Sustainability. System enters Suspend mode; press the power button again to return to full power. Admissions Essay. You can choose whether or not to permit your system to enter complete Suspend mode. Suspend mode offers greater power savings, with a correspondingly longer awakening period.

SIS5597. RS-232C serial port. Essays On Environmental Sustainability. Infrared port compliant with IrDA 1.0 specification. IrDA-compliant serial infrared port. Unique Essay. 1 MB/sec infrared port. Fast Infrared standard. Fast Infrared standard. 0.57-MB/sec infrared port. 1.15-MB/sec infrared port.

4-Mb/s data transmission. IrDA-compliant serial infrared port. Essays On Environmental. Amplitude shift keyed infrared port. NOTE: Many disk diagnostic programs that access the boot sector table can trigger the college essay, virus warning message. On Environmental Sustainability. If you plan to run such a program, we recommend that you first disable the virus warning.

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methods essay Double-click on any word and sustainability see its definition from Cambridge Dictionaries Online. One of the most important skills you will learn and develop during your university years is grade an essay writing, in particular essay writing. It is important to realise that this is essays on environmental a skill which has to be learnt and practised, and that therefore you should apply yourselves from the very beginning, as you will be writing essays for which you will be graded from the early weeks to the very end of your degree programme. These skills will be used by you regularly once you leave university, no matter what path you choose to take. Essay writing involves presenting an argument and communicating.

It can be easily imagined that this covers a vast variety of scenarios in which you need to be clear and persuasive : arguing that you should be given the job you are applying for, selling the outline of a film script you have written, presenting products at various forums, writing articles for publication, persuading your bank manager to extend your loan, preparing reports, beginning and inspirational sustaining your career in journalism, and writing lectures and class plans for your future students. The list is endless, and it is obvious that the way you present your arguments in on environmental sustainability, written form can make the difference between success and failure - in subject-by-subject and contrast, which case you will have to think again. In some of the scenarios outlined above the skills required for essay writing should be slightly adapted but the basic skills and methods are in the main common to all forms of formal writing in which an argument or arguments need to be presented. The focus here is primarily on writing essays concerning literature. You may have many great ideas and be a very intuitive and fine reader of essays on environmental, literature, but no-one will ever know if you cannot express your ideas properly and introduction child labour your communicative skills are not developed. Essays Sustainability. It is no good carrying around insights into a particular piece of literature if you do not put efforts into presenting them clearly . Some of the following may be obvious, but the points need to be emphasised and consulted each time you are preparing an essay. The comments are based on years of introduction child labour essay, experience of reading student essays, good, bad, and indifferent at the University of essays sustainability, Liège. An essay should not be merely a list. Too many in compare and contrast, the past have been a list of on environmental, notes, or a series of subject-by-subject and contrast essay, sub-headings followed by a list of dashes (-) or stars (*) accompanied by one or two words and/or quotations from the literary text with no explanation of what they are doing there. Let us be blunt here and state that we tutors are not impressed by indiscriminate underlining and the use of essays sustainability, different coloured pens. Sub-headings written in magenta, underlined in ochre, followed by a list of quotations in vermilion are pointless.

We are not tricked by teachers attempts to distract us, through dazzling visual displays, from the fact that an essay is poor. An essay should be the development of argument, interpretation and essays sustainability analysis through extended and flowing narrative . To do this you need to work at unique, the level of the sentence, of course, but also, very importantly, you need to work at the level of the paragraph . The paragraph is a coherent passage of logically connected sentences usually concentrating on no more than one or two ideas relevant to your argument. Do not use very short and unconnected staccato sentences. Essays On Environmental. It takes experience and practice to develop a sense of when a new paragraph is needed and when it has been finished. Essay. Examine the on environmental, introduction to this booklet and this guide to get some sense of how paragraphs, or ' idea units ' as they have also been called, can be developed and constructed, and how their 'natural' beginnings and ends appear. The first sentence of the paragraph should generally be a 'strong' one, used to signal or indicate the idea to be discussed within the paragraph. Grade An Essay. Think of essays, a 'topic sentence', as it has also been called, which will highlight the main areas examined in a particular paragraph. Connecting and signposting words and phrases should be learnt, used, practised and developed (examples are 'furthermore', 'moreover', 'in addition', 'to qualify the above', 'however', 'in order to', 'in this connection', 'having established that' etc.). The argument should develop through the language you use and therefore in a short essay sub-headings are unnecessary. Several stages are involved in essay preparation, choosing which points are to be considered, deciding how you will deal with them, and the actual writing. Unique College. As you gain more experience you will find methods and on environmental ways of working which suit you, your personality and lifestyle.

Generally, however, the process will involve the following. Unique College. You should examine carefully the statements made in the essay question , making sure you understand each word and what is being asked, as misreading and misunderstanding at this stage can be fatal. Essay questions can be very general, very specific and sometimes deliberately provocative, and an understanding of them is essays sustainability essential. Read through notes you may have made in class, start to gather other relevant source material , and make notes about the literary text you are examining. Inspirational. Ask yourself the questions suggested earlier in the introduction to this booklet, concerning style, content, and imagery etc. Essays On Environmental Sustainability. Next you will probably want to identify the key points that you want to discuss. Unique Essay. There may be many points you find generally interesting, but ask yourself if they are relevant to the essay in question. To do this it can be useful to try to think of a title for your essay.

This is not to be confused with the on environmental sustainability, essay question or title, but is grade an essay concerned with your response to the task set. What title would best give the reader an overview of sustainability, your approach and analysis, and highlight the main points you examine and college essay the conclusions you reach? (Suggestions concerning conclusions will be given later). You should not assume that an essay has to include and cover all the essays sustainability, possible points an interpretation may offer up. A short, well organised and structured essay focusing on some of the main points is teachers far better than an over-long and unwieldy attempt to say a little about everything. You may find it useful to state in the introduction which points you are focusing on and why.

Keep your reader informed of the development of essays, your argument. Let her or him know which direction is teachers essays being taken and the reasons why. On Environmental Sustainability. Once the main points have been identified you need to consider in which order they will be examined. Students often do not make the most of the good ideas they have because they get lost if the argument does not develop coherently. University Admissions. Good points are also often thrown away or wasted because students do not say enough about them. Make sure the relevance of each point to the main argument is clearly stated and demonstrated. You should dwell and on environmental sustainability linger on the points: often this requires no more than two or three extra sentences, particularly if your writing is concise and focused. A good essay takes time to prepare and write, so start to think about it and do the groundwork well ahead of the essay deadline (even in three types, timed conditions, such as exams, it is important to take the time to organise and structure the essay before starting to write). You will probably find that you need to work out your ideas on paper before writing the on environmental sustainability, essay, and are encouraged to prepare an outline of the essay: a point by point series of teachers essays, key words, phrases and essays on environmental ideas. This will help you to organise the structure and to recognise what is grade an essay relevant and essays on environmental irrelevant to the essay as a whole.

Some people find that a plan or outline will consist of eight to ten words only. Inspirational Teachers Essays. Others find it more useful to draw up very detailed plans, outlining every paragraph and its contents. Again you will discover which method works for essays sustainability, you as you go along. Some students find it easier to think and plan the essay point by point before beginning to write, whilst others find that after some initial preparation, reading, organisation and teachers essays thinking they can only develop their ideas through writing. Both these approaches take time, if the essays sustainability, essays are to be done well.

It should be stressed here that the first plan does not have to be binding and may change as the work begins and develops. The main point here is that essays involve a certain amount of planning and preparation even before the grade an essay, actual writing begins. Having emphasised that essays are hard work and take time it should also be stressed that it can be very stimulating and rewarding to work through a number of ideas in depth and essays sustainability detail. Literary texts and literary language are potentially very complex, inspiring, and beautiful. The ideas and images often demand careful thought and attention. Computers are essential in valparaiso university admissions essay, terms of using the essays on environmental, time you spend on an essay efficiently and productively. As stated earlier, good essay writing demands time spent on valparaiso university admissions essay every stage of the process: reading and research, making an outline, ordering and structuring your ideas, writing and changing various drafts, and final editing and presentation. With this in mind it cannot be stressed enough how important it is for essays sustainability, you to learn word-processing skills and to valparaiso university essay, make sure you have access to a computer.

Use the university resources. Admittedly the space available is sustainability limited at structure compare essay, times but this is no excuse not to learn the skills, if you do not already possess them, and to find out where there are available computer terminals. Of course if you use university resources it is even more important to start your essay early in order to avoid the last minute rush as most students, not only from this department, search for terminals in a panic on the Friday before a Monday deadline. It is appreciated that students are very busy and do have a lot of work, but it is a mistake to claim, as some students have been heard, that they are too busy to learn word-processing skills. Ultimately word-processing will save you a lot of time. It is essays sustainability far easier to add and delete material, and to restructure and reorganise essays by moving material around, on a computer than if you are writing by hand. Software has become really user-friendly; 'Word', for instance, will tell you what to do in explicit English or French, and three types of charismatic leadership typing skills can be learned whilst typing. Your essay will be the representation of an sustainability argument on a given subject or subjects . Compare And Contrast. It will include only points which are relevant to sustainability, the subject, so be careful to college essay, get rid of material that is not directly relevant. Although students complain that essays are too long, most of the essays you will write are really relatively short. Part of the skill of essays, writing is to write concisely and economically , without wasting material or 'padding' the work with irrelevant diversions and repetition. Once the points have been chosen they should be presented logically and coherently , so do not leap about from point to point.

Each point generally will have some connection to the preceding one and the one to follow. If you do leave one area of the essay, essay to essays sustainability, move into another, but intend later to go back to the point you have left and show, for example, how the points may be connected or related, then it can be useful to say so by 'signposting', e.g. 'this point will be picked up later', 'this point will be returned to later, after taking into consideration . '. Of Charismatic. After each draft of the essays sustainability, essay check that each point is presented in a logical and coherent order. Read each draft carefully and critically. Unique. Is there a significant idea you have not included in sustainability, the essay? Do you need to expand some of the points you have chosen to valparaiso essay, write about? Are some of the points, after due consideration, not really relevant? Have you been too long-winded or repetitive? If so, cut out and/or reduce some of the on environmental, text. Does your argument need to be clearer, and do the links between some of the main points need more emphasis? You should be asking yourself these questions throughout the whole process.

A particularly distressing weakness in the past, but hopefully not the future, has been the absence of serious discussion of imagery and grade an essay literary language . Some students have merely stated that the author uses imagery, illustrated this with an example, and then moved on to the next point on the list. If you discuss images, metaphors and other literary devices, then say how and why they are being used in the piece of fiction, and maybe if you think the imagery works or not. If you do not say how and why an image is essays on environmental being used then don't mention it. Essay. You will not write good work on literature if you approach an essay as some useless game of 'spot the image'. Throughout your years at the University of Liège you will be writing essays on literature which will inevitably include numerous quotations , either from the literature you are working on or from secondary sources, be they books or articles on historical context, literary criticism or other relevant areas. These quotations can obviously add much to on environmental sustainability, the texture and valparaiso quality of your work, but they are often handled very badly by students. Do not assume that a good quotation will do all the work you want by itself. Poor essays are often merely a patchwork of quotations stitched together by the briefest of comments, and it is a mistake to leave quotations hanging in mid-air, as it were, without comment or explanation. Essays On Environmental. Quotations need to be framed. They should be introduced, not mechanically, but within a context provided by the logical development of your argument . ( See Example 1 at the end of this guide).

You should also provide some commentary on the quotations, particularly if they include difficult and/or controversial ideas or material. This is often likely to be the case as there is really little point in including 'bland' quotations in your essay. You may want to gloss, explain, qualify or modify the quoted words, or you may have included quotations whose assumptions or arguments you strongly disagree with. Admissions. The latter case can be useful, if handled well. On Environmental. Often an argument can be developed through contrast with opposing or differing arguments. This tactic in essay construction also displays independent thinking in that it demonstrates that you have not unthinkingly accepted and believed everything you have read. One final point on quotations: do not plagiarise . Using other people's work without saying so is a serious crime. Tutors have read widely on the subjects you will be writing on and are very likely to recognise when you are plagiarising. If you use other people's ideas and words they have to be acknowledged through proper footnoting and referencing . Grade An Essay. ( See Example 2 at essays on environmental, the end of this guide). Essays need a conclusion , which for valparaiso essay, the sake of clarity should be relatively short.

It is generally best not to include new ideas or new material in your concluding comments, particularly since many people think that a conclusion should be a summary of the prior arguments. You may, however, point to alternative conclusions or arguments, or briefly suggest areas of interest that have not been dealt with directly by essays sustainability the essay. Valparaiso University Admissions. People often get the wrong idea about conclusions and believe that this is the place to essays, state firm convictions, and that a conclusion has to make a stand and come down on essay the side of one argument or another. This can be the case but it is not necessarily so. If an essay title comes in on environmental, the form of a question, for example 'Is James Joyce seeking to distance himself from traditional forms of Irish culture?', and you cannot decide, do not think that this is a problem. It is as much a sign of intelligence to state that you cannot decide as it is to college, sift through the evidence and decide one way or the other. Think about why you cannot decide. Perhaps the evidence is conflicting. Perhaps the literary text and its use of imagery is ambiguous, or even contradictory; as is often the case. If you cannot decide, then say so, outlining why you cannot decide.

Alternatively, you may partly agree or partly disagree with the statements or questions raised by the title , or by questions raised directly in essays, responding to the title. If so, say so. A forced conclusion to structure and contrast, an essay can be as bad as the essay having no concluding remarks at essays, all. In connection to university admissions, the last point it should be emphasised that any essay should be about essays, your ideas and your interpretation of the literature being studied . Of course your ideas may, and indeed should, develop through discussions with friends, fellow students, tutors and through the consultation of books and articles, but it is your ideas which should form the basis of the essay. Whilst you will use material that is not your own, it is the way that you use, add to, adapt and admissions modify this material that makes the argument your own and sustainability original. Your own voice should be heard.

This needs to be qualified by the understanding that there is a particular form and style in academic writing . This is generally formal, analytical , and 'serious' rather than colloquial, emotional and conversational . Your voice and your ideas need to be heard, but be careful of cultivating an overly idiosyncratic, 'individual' style. Remember that in writing you are communicating and that therefore your argument should be clearly expressed. This does not mean you should be simplistic: it is a very important skill to express complex ideas with clarity. One final point needs to be made on the subject of the child labour, essays you write being about your ideas. Some of you may find this an extraordinary statement but it is essays a bad idea to tailor and construct your essay around what you believe your tutor or the head of the valparaiso admissions essay, course thinks about the text, and what you think she or he wants to hear. If you have different methods or your interpretations differ from those of the tutor, then develop them happily. Remember that essay writing is all about presenting an argument and using evidence from the text and elsewhere to back up your statements, and if you do this well you will be given credit for essays sustainability, it whether or not the tutor agrees with the overall argument. It is not particularly interesting for tutors to read in essays only grade an essay what they have said in class, particularly if this is reproduced in essays, a flat, unconvincing, and admissions unconvinced manner. Of course you may agree and be persuaded by arguments and interpretations outlined in class but if you do not believe the arguments you reproduce in the essay it will be obvious and the tutor will wonder why you bothered to include them. You will write a better essay if you are focusing on essays on environmental sustainability your own ideas, developed through discussion and reading, not least because you will be enthused by them.

Eventually your ideas will be thought through, outlines planned and re-planned, main points developed, written down on valparaiso university admissions essay paper, then rewritten, and essays finally given to your tutor. Nevertheless your work on grade an essay the essay has not yet finished. Once the on environmental, essay has been graded and returned it is very important that you do not merely look at structure compare, the grade you have received before putting it at the bottom of your files. Read through your tutor's comments carefully, and make sure you understand exactly why you have received the grade you have, even if you are happy with it. Essays On Environmental Sustainability. If you do not understand why, or you are not sure about your tutor's comments, then ask. If it is not possible to ask during class or you would prefer to talk privately go to your tutor during office hours, or make an appointment if these clash with other classes. Writing is a skill which has to be learnt and inspirational teachers practised, it is an ongoing process and you will learn more each time. Follow up work once the essay has been returned is an important part of this process. Example 1: Using Quotations.

The extract below, from a paper on Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie , shows how quotations can be used. On Environmental Sustainability. Because the paper quotes from the novel extensively, page numbers are found within the main body of the text, in types of charismatic, parentheses, after complete bibliographical details have been provided in a footnote to the first quotation. Quotations from secondary sources are referenced by footnotes. On Environmental Sustainability. Short quotations are included, in quotation marks, within the main body of the paper, whilst the longer quotation, without quotation marks, makes up an indented paragraph. Note that even when the writing by the author of the paper is child labour combined with quotations from the novel and secondary sources the sustainability, sentences are still grammatically correct and coherent. Jean Brodie is convinced of the rightness of unique, her own power, and uses it in a frightening manner: 'Give me a girl at an impressionable age, and she is mine for life'. 1 This is Miss Brodie's adoption of the Jesuit formula, but, whereas they claim the child for on environmental, God, she moulds the child for her own ends. Valparaiso University Admissions Essay. 'You are mine,' she says, '. of my stamp and cut . ' (129).

When Sandy, her most perceptive pupil, sees the 'Brodie set' 'as a body with Miss Brodie for on environmental, the head' (36), there is, as David Lodge points out, a biblical parallel with the Church as the body of Christ. 2 God is Miss Jean Brodie's rival, and teachers this is demonstrated in a literal way when one of her girls, Eunice, grows religious and is preparing herself for confirmation. Essays On Environmental. She becomes increasingly independent of Miss Brodie's influence and decides to go on subject-by-subject structure and contrast the Modern side in the Senior school although Jean Brodie makes clear her own preference for the Classical. Eunice refuses to continue her role as the group's jester, or to essays on environmental, go with them to the ballet. Cunningly, her tutor tries to regain control by playing on her religious convictions:

All that term she tried to inspire Eunice to types, become at essays on environmental sustainability, least a pioneer missionary in some deadly and dangerous zone of the earth, for three types, it was intolerable to Miss Brodie that any of her girls should grow up not largely dedicated to some vocation. 'You will end up as a Girl Guide leader in a suburb like Corstorphine', she said warningly to Eunice, who was in fact secretly attracted to this idea and who lived in Corstorphine. (81) Miss Brodie has different plans for Rose; she is to be a 'great lover' (146), and her tutor audaciously absolves her from the on environmental sustainability, sins this will entail: 'she is above the moral code, it does not apply to her' (146). This dismissal of possible retribution distorts the girls' judgement of Miss Brodie's actions. The above passage is taken from Ruth Whittaker, The Faith and Fiction of Muriel Spark (London and Basingstoke: MacMillan, 1982), pp.106-7. Example 2: Laying out a bibliography.

The bibliography will usually include the relevant sources consulted in inspirational teachers essays, producing your essay , even if you have not referred to or quoted from them directly. The order is alphabetical and determined by the authors' names. Book titles appear in italics or are underlined , whilst article titles appear in inverted commas. When referring to books you should include the sustainability, author's name, place of publication, the publisher, and the date when the book was published. To reference the source of an article from a journal include the name of the journal, the number and/or volume number, the date of publication and the page numbers. Three Types Of Charismatic. There are several styles for laying out a bibliography, but the same elements appear in each, and essays sustainability you must be consistent. Consult the handbooks to be found in the libraries for further details. This is a model used by many British universities and publishers. Dahlgren, Pete, Television and the Public Sphere (London: Sage Publishers, 1995) Dubois, Ellen, 'Antipodean Feminism', New Left Review , no.206, July/August 1994, 127-33. Fussel, Paul, The Great War and subject-by-subject structure and contrast Modern Memory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975)

Gledhill, Christine, 'Melodrama', in The Cinema Book , ed. Pam Cook (London: BFI, 1985), pp.73-84. Lodge, David, 'The Uses and Abuses of Omniscience: Method and Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie ' in David Lodge, The Novelist at on environmental sustainability, the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and Criticism (London: Routledge and essay Kegan Paul, 1971), pp.119-44. Pettifer, James, The Greeks (London: Penguin, 1993) This is the essays, model recommended by essay the Modern Languages Association (MLA) and is used by essays most American universities and publishers. Dahlgren, Pete. Television and the Public Sphere . London: Sage Publishers, 1995.

Dubois, Ellen. Antipodean Feminism. Child Labour Essay. New Left Review 206 (July/August 1994): 127-33. Fussel, Paul. The Great War and sustainability Modern Memory . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975. Gledhill, Christine. Melodrama in The Cinema Book . Ed. Pam Cook. Grade An Essay. London: BFI, 1985.

73-84. Lodge, David. The Uses and Abuses of Omniscience: Method and essays Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie in David Lodge The Novelist at the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and leadership Criticism . London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971. Essays. 119-44. Pettifer, James. The Greeks. London: Penguin, 1993. The essential information provided by each model is inspirational given in essays on environmental sustainability, the same order, but they differ in the way that the details are presented. Whichever model you choose or are instructed to use ensure that you stay consistent to it. Consult reference works for further advice.

These books are on the open shelves: · John Clanchy and Brigid Ballard, How to grade an essay, Write Essays (Melbourne: Longman Cheshire, 1992) · Joseph Gibaldi, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (New York: MLA, 1995) 1 Muriel Spark, The Prime of sustainability, Miss Jean Brodie (London: Macmillan, 1961), p.7. All further references are to subject-by-subject structure essay, this edition and given in the text. 2 David Lodge, 'The Uses and Abuses of Omniscience: Method and Meaning in essays on environmental, Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie ', in David Lodge, The Novelist at the Crossroads and unique college essay Other Essays on Fiction and Criticism (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971), pp.119-44.

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All Work and No Pay: The Great Speedup. Illustration: Mark Matcho. Update (9/3/2015): The US economy has roared back since the Great Recession, but many employees are grappling with the same overwhelming crush of work that was a hallmark of the downturn. The phenomenon has fueled an essays on environmental sustainability, extraordinary rise in corporate revenues, but it has also stretched workers to the breaking point. Here’s why: On a bright spring day in a wisteria-bedecked courtyard full of earnest, if half-drunk, conference attendees, we were commiserating with a fellow journalist about all the jobs we knew of grade an essay that were going unfilled, being absorbed or handled #8220;on the side.#8221; It was tough for all concerned, but necessaryyou know, doing more with less. His old-school phrase gave form to something we#8217;d been noticing with increasing apprehensionand it extended far beyond journalism. We#8217;d hear from essays sustainability creative professionals in grade an essay, what seemed to be dream jobs who were crumbling under ever-expanding to-do lists; from bus drivers, hospital technicians, construction workers, doctors, and lawyers who shame-facedly whispered that no matter how hard they tried to essays keep up with the extra hours and introduction, extra tasks, they just couldn#8217;t hold it together. (And don#8217;t even ask about on environmental, family time.) Webster#8217;s defines speedup as #8220;an employer#8217;s demand for accelerated output without increased pay,#8221; and it used to be a household word. Bosses would speed up the line to inspirational teachers fill a big order, to goose profits, or to punish a restive workforce. Workers recognized it, unions (remember those?) watched for and negotiated over itand, if necessary, walked out over it. But now we no longer even acknowledge itnot in blue-collar work, not in white-collar or pink-collar work, not in economics texts, and essays sustainability, certainly not in the media (except when journalists gripe about the staff-compacted-job-expanded newsroom). Now the word we use is #8220;productivity,#8221; a term insidious in both its usage and creep.

The not-so-subtle implication is always: Don#8217;t you want to unique be a productive member of society? Pundits across the political spectrum revel in essays, the fact that US productivity (a.k.a. Grade An Essay. economic output per hour worked) consistently leads the world. On Environmental. Yes, year after year, Americans wring even more value out of each minute on the job than we did the year before. Three Types Of Charismatic Leadership. U-S-A! U-S-A! Except what#8217;s good for American business isn#8217;t necessarily good for essays, Americans . We#8217;re not just working smarter, but harder. And harder. And harder, to the point where the driver is no longer American industriousness, but something much more predatory.

You have nothing to lose but your gains. Productivity has surged, but income and grade an essay, wages have stagnated for most Americans. If the median household income had kept pace with the economy since 1970, it would now be nearly $92,000, not $50,000. Essays. Click here for unique college, 9 more charts that will make your blood boil. Sound familiar: Mind racing at 4 a.m.? Guiltily realizing you#8217;ve been only half-listening to essays on environmental sustainability your child for the past hour? Checking work email at a stoplight, at teachers essays, the dinner table, in essays on environmental sustainability, bed? Dreading once-pleasant diversions, like dinner with friends, as just one more thing on your to-do list? Guess what: It#8217;s not you. These might seem like personal problemsand certainly, the pharmaceutical industry is happy to child perpetuate that notionbut they#8217;re really economic problems.

Just counting work that#8217;s on essays the books (never mind those 11 p.m. emails), Americans now put in an average of inspirational teachers 122 more hours per year than Brits, and 378 hours (nearly 10 weeks!) more than Germans. The differential isn#8217;t solely accounted for by longer hours, of courseworldwide, almost everyone except us has, at least on paper, a right to weekends off, paid vacation time (PDF), and paid maternity leave. (The only other countries that don#8217;t mandate paid time off for new moms are Papua New Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Samoa, and Swaziland. U-S#8230;A?) To understand how we got here, first let#8217;s consider the Ben Franklin-Horatio Alger-Henry Ford ur-myth: To balk at essays on environmental, working hardreally, really hardbrands you as profoundly un-American. Who besides the archetypical Japanese salaryman derives so much of university his self-image from self-sacrifice on the job? Slacker is essays, one of the essay, most biting insults available in polite company. And so we kowtow tonay, embracea cultural maxim that just happens to be enormously convenient to corporate America. #8220;Our culture has encouraged me to only feel valuable if I#8217;m barely hanging on to my sanity,#8221; one friend emailed as we were working on this article. In fact, each time we mentioned this topic to someonereader, source, friendthey first took pains to say: I#8217;m not lazy.

I love my job. I come from a long line of hard workers. But then it would pour out of on environmental themthe fatigue, the isolation, the guilt. #8220;I am exhausted,#8221; said a #8220;part time#8221; college instructor in subject-by-subject compare and contrast, Illinois. #8220;I can#8217;t help my son with his homework because I am grading papers until late into the night. I get up very early during the essays sustainability, week, skip lunch to three of charismatic save not money but time, and the workload never lets up. My employer uses and abuses full-time employees even more so than those of us that are hourly. My supervisor, for essays sustainability, example, runs a large department.

He was just promoted to a new, even more demanding position, but his position running the department will not be filled. He will now be doing what is a 60-to-70-hour job #8216;on the valparaiso admissions, side.#8217; I can#8217;t complain of overwork, because everyone is on environmental, competing to get enough classes to pay the bills. If you lose a class, you lose a chunk of grade an essay your paycheck. If we can#8217;t handle it, the class can always be given to another teacher who will be desperate for the work or money.#8221; Sure, but these are tough timesemployers struggling to survive the sustainability, recession are just tightening their belts, right? That#8217;s true for unique, some. But in the big picture, the data show a more insidious pattern. Consider the charts above: After a sharp dip in sustainability, 2008 and 2009, US economic output recovered nicely to near pre-recession levelswe did better than most of subject-by-subject essay our fellow G-7 economies.

But not so American workers : Far more people here lost their jobs, and fewer were hired back once the recovery began, than anywhere else. Now, some jobs always get #8220;rationalized#8221; away, thanks to technological or organizational improvementsan area where, it#8217;s not jingoistic to say, the essays on environmental sustainability, US has led its European counterparts. Labour Essay. But that #8220;productivity gap#8221; has narrowed considerably, and in on environmental, any case, there certainly was no dramatic tech or efficiency breakthrough between 2008 and 2010 (quiteTwitter/Facebook/FarmVillethe opposite). What about offshoring? That#8217;s certainly a factor. But increasingly, US workers are also falling prey to what we#8217;ll call offloading : cutting jobs and dumping the work onto the remaining staff.

Consider a recent Wall Street Journal story about #8220;superjobs,#8221; a nifty euphemism for grade an essay, employees doing more than one job#8217;s worth of workmore than half of all workers surveyed said their jobs had expanded, usually without a raise or bonus. In all the essays sustainability, chatter about our #8220;jobless recovery,#8221; how often does someone explain the three types of charismatic, simple feat by which this is actually accomplished? US productivity increased twice as fast in essays on environmental, 2009 as it had in 2008, and twice as fast again in child, 2010: workforce down, output up, and voilá! No wonder corporate profits are up 22 percent since 2007, according to essays a new report by the Economic Policy Institute. To repeat: Up. Twenty-two. Percent. This is nothing short of a sea change. As University of California-Berkeley economist Brad DeLong notes, until not long ago, #8220;businesses would hold on to workers in downturns even when there wasn#8217;t enough for them to dowould put them to work painting the factorybecause businesses did not want to see their skilled, experienced workers drift away and then have to go through the expense and loss of training new ones. That era is over. These days firms take advantage of downturns in demand to rationalize operations and valparaiso university admissions, increase labor productivity, pleading business necessity to essays on environmental sustainability their workers.#8221; How does corporate America have the of charismatic, gall?

You pretty much know the answer, but for official confirmation let#8217;s turn to Erica Groshen, a vice president at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York: It#8217;s easier here than in, say, the UK or Germany #8220;for employers to avoid adding permanent jobs,#8221; she told the AP recently. #8220;They#8217;re less constrained by traditional human-resources practices [translation: decency] or union contracts.#8221; In plainer English, here#8217;s Rutgers political scientist Carl Van Horn: #8220;Everything is tilted in favor of the employers#8230;The employee has no leverage. If your boss says, #8216;I want you to come in essays on environmental sustainability, the next two Saturdays,#8217; what are you going to grade an essay sayno?#8221; And lest CNBC hornswoggle you, this is not just a product of the recession. Throughout the past decade, salaries stagnated and workloads grew, but Wall Street#8217;s bubble allowed us to drown our sorrows in credit. Essays On Environmental Sustainability. ( Sure, I#8217;m working crazy hours and our pension fund is history, but check out introduction essay my granite countertop! ) Then came the crash, and the speedup#8230;speeded up. Which brings us to another shared delusion: multitasking. Essays. Our best efforts at essay, collective denial notwithstanding, simple arithmetic reveals that even after housewives entered the workforce, the work of essays on environmental sustainability housewives still had to be done.

Sure, some of itespecially child carewas outsourced, often at rock-bottom wages. But for many women, and a rising (though not yet sufficient) number of men, the second shift awaits each night. And it#8217;s increasingly being joined by a third shift, as we remain digitally tethered to the office in the diminishing hours we#8217;re actually home. Multitasking seems the obvious fix let me just answer this email while I help with your homework ! But here#8217;s the scary research news: Minus a few freakish exceptions, most of us cannot actually multitask. Try to unique essay keep up a conversation with your spouse while scanning the sustainability, BlackBerry, and empirical data shows (PDF) that you do both things poorly. And not only that: If you multitask constantly, your actual mental circuitry erodes, and your brain loses its ability to focus. Structure. (Same with sleep: Aside from a tiny minority of mutants, humans perform distinctly and essays on environmental, progressively worse when they get fewer than eight hours a night. Go ahead and cry.) Click here for more maps and charts on how Americans are working more and earning less. Think you#8217;re the introduction child essay, exception? Nope. #8220;Virtually all multitaskers think they are brilliant at multitasking,#8221; warns Stanford sociologist Clifford Nass. #8220;And one of the big discoveries is, you know what?

You#8217;re really lousy at sustainability, it. [It#8217;s] been demonstrated over and over and over. No one talks about grade an essay, itI don#8217;t know whybut in fact there#8217;s no contradictory evidence to this for about the last 15, 20 years.#8221; Actually, it#8217;s not hard to guess why no one talks about it: We need to believe there#8217;s a personal workaround for what we#8217;re conditioned to sustainability see as a personal shortcoming. When, in unique college, fact, the problem is the absurd premise that our economy can produce ever more with ever less. On Environmental Sustainability. But take heart! Up in subject-by-subject structure and contrast, the corner offices, there#8217;s a growing recognition that unrealistic demands on essays sustainability time are destroying the souls of#8230;executives. #8220;Always-on, multitasking work environments are killing productivity, dampening creativity, and making us unhappy,#8221; notes a recent article in three types leadership, McKinsey Quarterly , the research publication of the giant global consulting firm that has been corporate America#8217;s chief efficiency cheerleader. #8220;These scourges hit CEOs and their colleagues in the C-suite particularly hard.#8221; McKinsey#8217;s advice to beleaguered execs?

Do one thing at a time; delegate; take more breaks. Just try telling that to essays on environmental sustainability the millions of introduction people whose work has been downsized, offshored, and sped up thanks to McKinsey. How have we been so brainwashed? For a lucky few, money and perks help sugarcoat the daily frenzyanything from the workaday onsite gym to the rock-climbing wall, free dry-cleaning, massage parlor, and essays sustainability, unlimited sushi you#8217;ll find at the Googleplex. Some heed the siren song of Tony Robbins/Franklin Planner/4-Hour Workweek/Lifehackerpick your productivity guru. But for most Americans, it#8217;s just fearof being passed over at best, downsized at worst. Even among college grads, unemployment is twice what it was in 2007, and those statistics don#8217;t take note of all the B.A.#8217;s stocking shelves and answering phones.

McDonald#8217;s recently announced that it had gotten more than a million applicants for 62,000 new positions. Enough said. Meanwhile, what#8217;s passed off as the growing pains of a modern economy isnot to go all Marxist on yousimply about introduction essay, redistribution. For 90 percent of American workers, incomes have stagnated or fallen for the past three decades, while they#8217;ve ballooned at the top, and exploded at the very tippy-top: By 2008, the on environmental sustainability, wealthiest 0.1 percent were making 6.4 times as much as they did in 1980 (adjusted for inflation). And just to further fuel your outrage, that 22 percent increase in grade an essay, profits? Most of essays sustainability it accrued to unique college a single industry: finance. In other words, all that extra work you#8217;ve taken onthe late nights, the skipped lunch hours, the missed soccer gamespaid off. For them. Essays Sustainability. This will keep up as long as we buy into three fallacies: One, that to feel crushed by debilitating workloads is a personal failing.

Two, that it#8217;s just your company or industry strugglingwhen in valparaiso, fact what#8217;s happening to hotel maids and sales clerks is also happening to essays sustainability project managers, engineers, and doctors. Three, that there#8217;s nothing anyone can do about inspirational, it. No, no, and no. We got to this point because of essays on environmental decades of grade an essay political decisions. To name but three: turning over the financing of on environmental sustainability elections to wealthy interests; making it harder for unions to organize; deregulating Wall Street (and completely wimping out on reregulating it after the financiers nearly destroyed the global economy).

And even after having watched these policies bring the global economy to its knees, Mitch McConnell Co. say that any questioning of structure compare and contrast corporate power is tantamount to rolling out the essays on environmental, tumbrels. Compare And Contrast Essay. Please. Essays. It would take a boatload of arrogance, and an essay four times this length, to prescribe a solution. But suffice it to say there are companies in unique college, the US that have figured out essays on environmental sustainability a way to thrive and maintain a sane, even engaging, work environment. (Take the policies of Mule Design Studio, a web-design shop with a number of blue-chip clients: #8220;Our office hours are Monday through Friday 9-6. We do not hand out our cell phone numbers. On the college essay, weekend, we cease to exist.#8221;) European companies face the same pressures that ours doyet in Germany#8217;s vigorous economy, for example, six weeks of vacation are de rigueur, weekend work is a last resort, and sustainability, companies#8217; response to a downturn is not to fire everyone, but to institute Kurzarbeit temporarily reducing hours and snapping back when things start looking up (PDF). Sure, they lag ever so slightly behind us in productivity.

But ask yourself: Who does our No. 1 spot benefit? Exactly. So maybe it#8217;s time to come out teachers essays of the speedup closet. Essays. Rant to college a friend, neighbor, coworker. Essays Sustainability. Hear them say, #8220;Me too.#8221; That might sound a little cheesy, and it#8217;s not going to lance Mitch McConnell from the body politic of America. But if you#8217;re in an abusive relationshipwhich 90-plus percent of America currently isthe first step toward recovery is to admit you have a problem.

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Essay on Marriage: Meaning, Functions and Forms. Here is your essay on marriage, it’s meaning, functions and forms! Marriage and family sociologically signifies the stage of greater social advancement. On Environmental Sustainability! It is indicative of grade an essay, man’s entry into the world of emotion and feeling, harmony and culture. Long before the institution of marriage developed, man and essays on environmental woman may have lived together, procreated children and died unwept and unsung. Their sexual relations must have been like birds and animals of momentary duration. Image Courtesy :–Zyo4IJENYk/TtuIdHcjm-I/AAAAAAAACwQ/Rg89UBiMU0A/s1600/lklk.jpg. Marriage as an institution developed over the time. It may have been accepted as a measure of social discipline and as an expedient to eliminate social stress due to the sex rivalry. The growing sense and sensibility may have necessitated the acceptance of norms for subject-by-subject compare and contrast formalising the union between man and woman.

Marriage is the most important institution of human society. It is a universal phenomenon. It has been the backbone of human civilisation. Human beings have certain urges like hungers, thirst and sex. Society works out certain rules and regulation for satisfaction of these urges. The rules and regulations, which deal with regulation of sex life of human beings, are dealt in essays sustainability, the marriage institution.

We can say that the Marriage is as old as the institution of family. Both these institutions are vital for the society. Family depends upon grade an essay the Marriage. Marriage regulates sex life of human beings. Marriage creates new social relationships and reciprocal rights between the spouses. It establishes the rights and essays on environmental the status of the children when they are born. Each society recognises certain procedures for creating such relationship and university admissions rights. The society prescribes rules for prohibitions, preferences and prescriptions in deciding marriage. Essays! It is this institution through which a man sustains the continuity of his race and attains satisfaction in a socially recognised manner.

Sociologists and anthropologists have given definitions of subject-by-subject structure compare and contrast essay, marriage. Some of the important definitions are given below. Edward Westermark. “Marriage is a relation of one or more men to one or more women which is recognised by custom or law and involves certain rights and duties both in the case of the parties entering the union and in the case of the children born of it. As B. Malinowski defines, “Marriage is a contract for the production and maintenance of children”. According H.M.

Johnson, “Marriage is a stable relationship in which a man and a woman are socially permitted without loss of standing in community, to have children”. Ira L. Reiss writes, “Marriage is a socially accepted union of individuals in husband and wife roles, with the key function of legitimating of parenthood”. William Stephens, the anthropologist, says that marriage is: (1) A socially legitimate sexual union begun with. (2) A public announcement, undertaken with. (3) Some idea of performance and assumed with a more or less explicit. (4) Marriage contract, which spells out reciprocal obligations between spouses and between spouses and their children. William J. Goode, the famous family sociologist has tried to combine the two objectives of marriage i.e. to regulate sex life and to recognize the newborn. It was perhaps for this reason that American sociologists came out with the statement that no child should be born without a father.

Although different thinkers have tried to essays sustainability provide definition of marriage, but there is no universally acceptable definition of marriage. There seems to be, however, a consensus that marriage involves several criteria that are found to exist cross-culturally and inspirational teachers essays throughout time. For example, Hindu marriage has three main objectives such as Dharma, Progeny and Sexual Pleasure. Individual happiness has been given the least importance. It is considered to be sacrament, a spiritual union between a man and a woman in the social status of husband and on environmental wife. In Western countries, marriage is a contract. Personal happiness is given the utmost importance. People enter into matrimonial alliances for the sake of seeking personal happiness. If this happiness is-not forthcoming they will terminate the relationship.

Marriage is thus cultural specific. The rules and regulations differ from one culture to another. We can, however, identify certain basic features of this institution. (1) A heterosexual union, including at least one male and grade an essay one female. (2) The legitimizing or granting of essays sustainability, approval to the sexual relationship and the bearing of children without any loss of standing in the community or society. (3) A public affair rather than a private, personal matter. (4) A highly institutionalized and patterned mating arrangement. (5) Rules which determine who can marry whom. (6) New statuses to man and woman in the shape of husband and wife and father and mother. (7) Development of personal intimate and grade an essay affectionate relationships between the spouses and parent and children. (8) A binding relationship that assumes some performance.

The above discussion helps us to conclude that the boundaries of marriage are not always precise and clearly defined. It is, however, very important institution for the society as it helps in replacement of sustainability, old and dying population. Marriage is an institutionalized relationship within the family system. It fulfills many functions attributed to the family in general. Family functions include basic personality formation, status ascriptions, socialization, tension management, and replacement of teachers, members, economic cooperation, reproduction, stabilization of adults, and essays the like. Many of these functions, while not requiring marriage for their fulfillment, are enhanced by the marital system”. In fact, evidence suggests marriage to be of great significance for unique essay the well-being of the individual. Researchers have shown that compared to the unmarried, married persons are generally happier, healthier, less depressed and disturbed and less prone to premature deaths. Marriage, rather than becoming less important or unimportant, may be increasingly indispensable. The functions of marriage differ as the structure of marriage differs. ‘For example, where marriage is specially an extension of the kin and extended family system, then procreation, passing on essays, the family name and continuation of unique, property become a basic function.

Thus, to not have a child or more specifically, to not have a male child, is sufficient reason to replace the present wife or add a new wife. Where marriage is based on “free choice,” i.e. parents and kinsmen play no role in selecting the partner, individualistic forces are accorded greater significance. Thus in the United States, marriage has many functions and involves many positive as well as negative personal factors : establishment of a family of one’s own, children, companionship, happiness, love, economic security, elimination of loneliness etc. The greater the extent to essays which the university admissions, perceived needs of marriage are met, and the fewer the alternatives in the replacement of the unmet needs, the greater the likelihood of marriage and the continuation of that marriage. At a personal level, any perceived reason may explain marriage, but at a social level, all societies sanction certain reasons and renounce others. Societies evolved mannerism and method for selection of the spouses, according to their peculiar socio-economic and political conditions, and in accordance with their levels of cultural advancement. This explains on the one hand the origin of the various forms, of marriage and on the other the differences in essays, the attitude of societies towards the institution of marriage. Some have accepted it as purely a contractual arrangement between weds, while others hold it as the sacred union between man, and inspirational essays woman. Forms of essays on environmental sustainability, marriage vary from society to society.

Marriage can be broadly divided into two types, (1) monogamy and (2) polygamy. Monogamy is essays, that form of marriage in which at a given period of time one man has marital relations with one woman. On the essays, death of the spouse or one of the partners seek divorce then they can establish such relationship with other persons but at a given period of inspirational teachers, time, one cannot have two or more wives or two or more husbands. This one to one relationship is the most modern civilized way of living. In most of the on environmental, societies it is this form, which is found and structure and contrast recognized. It should be noted that on a societal basis, only about 20 per cent of the societies are designated as strictly monogamous, that is, monogamy is the required form. When monogamy does not achieve stability, certain married persons end their relationship and remarry. Thus, the second spouse, although not existing simultaneously with the first, is sometimes referred to as fitting into a pattern of essays, sequential monogamy, serial monogamy or remarriage.

Keeping in view the advantages of monogamy the world has granted recognition to monogamous form of marriage. The following are its advantages: 1. Better Adjustment: In this form of marriage men and women have to adjust with one partner only. College! In this way there is better adjustment between them.

2. Essays On Environmental! Greater Intimacy: If the number of people in the family will be limited there will be more love and affection in the family. Because of which they will have friendly and deep relations. 3. University Admissions! Better Socialization of Children: In the monogamy the children are looked after with earnest attention of parents. The development of modes of children will be done nicely. There will be no jealously between the parents for looking after their children.

Family happiness is maintained under monogamy which is completely destroyed in other forms of marriage because of jealousy and other reasons. Thus, in essays on environmental, this form of marriage, family is defined as happy family. 5. Valparaiso University Essay! Equal Status to Woman: In this form of marriage the status of woman in family is equal. If husband works she looks after the house or both of them work for strengthening the economic condition of the family. 6. Equalitarian way of Living: It is only under monogamous way of living that husband and wife can have equalitarian way of life.

Under this system husband and wife not only share the familial role and obligations but also have joint decisions. The decision making process becomes a joint venture. 7. Population Control: Some sociologists have the view that monogamy controls the essays on environmental, population. Three! Because of on environmental, one wife children in the family will be limited.

8. Better Standard of Living: It also affects the standard of essay, living within limited resources. One can manage easily to live a better life. It helps in the development of independent personality without much constraint and sustainability pressure. 9. Teachers! Respect to old Parents: Old parents receive favouring care by their children but under polygamy their days are full of bitterness. 10.

Law is in favour: Monogamy is sustainability, legally sanctioned form of marriage while some are legally prohibited. 11. More Cooperation: In such a family there is close union between the couple and the chances of conflict are reduced and there is cooperation between husband and wife. It is college essay, more stable form of marriage. There is better division of property after the death of parents. Monogamy is a marriage between one husband and one wife. So if the partner is sustainability, not of choice then life loses its charm. They have to adjust between themselves but now-a-days divorce is the answer to their problem. According to Sumner and Keller, “Monogamy is subject-by-subject compare and contrast essay, monopoly.” Wherever there is monopoly, there is bound to be both ‘ins and sustainability outs’.

Some inpatients can’t have kids or some barren cannot have kids. If one of the partners has some problem couples cannot have children. They have to suffer from childlessness. 4. Structure Compare And Contrast Essay! Economic Factors: Marriage in monogamy does not play part of income. They have to depend upon their own occupation for living.

If they are poor they will remain poor. So monogamy effects the essays on environmental, economic condition of introduction child essay, man and on environmental woman. 5. Better status to Women: Monogamy provides better status to women in the society. They are counted equal to unique men. Some people do not like this form of marriage. When they do not get partner of their own choice they start sexual relations with other people. This also leads to the problem of essays, prostitution. Distinguished from monogamy is polygamy.

Polygamy refer to the marriage of several or many. Polygamy is the form of marriage in which one man marries two or more women or one woman marries two or more men or a number of men many a number of women. According to F.N. Balasara, “The forms of teachers essays, marriage in which there is plurality of partners is called polygamy”. Polygamy, like other forms of essays, marriage is highly regulated and normatively controlled. It is likely to be supported by the attitudes and values of both the sexes. Polygamy itself has many forms and variations. Polygamy is of three types: (i) Polygyny, (ii) Polyandry and (iii) Group marriage.

Let us now discuss forms of child labour, polygamy in details, Polygyny is a form of marriage in which a man has more than one .wife at a time. In other words it is a form of marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given time. It is the prevalent form of marriage among the on environmental sustainability, tribes, Polygyny also appears to be the privilege of the wealthy, in essay, many African societies the rich usually have more than one wife. This type of essays sustainability, marriage is found in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda. In India, polygyny persisted from the Vedic times until Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.

Now polygyny is visible among many tribes of India. Viewing polygyny cross-culturally, poiygynous families evidence specific organisational features: 1. In certain matters, sex particularly, co-wives have clearly defined equal rights. 2. Each wife is set up in a separate establishment. 3. The senior wife is given special powers and privileges. It has been suggested that if co-wives are sisters, they usually live in the same house; if co-wives are not sister, they usually live in separate houses. It is believed that sibling can better tolerate, suppress and live with a situation of sexual rivalry than can non-siblings. Polygyny may be of two types: (i) Sororal polygyny and (ii) Non-soraral polygyny. Sororal polygyny is one in which all the wives are sisters. Child Labour Essay! Non-sororal polygyny means the marriage of one man with many women who are not sisters. 1. Disproportion of sexes in the Population:

When in any tribe or society male members are less in number and females are more, then this type of marriage takes place. 2. Out-migration of sustainability, male Population: To earn the unique, livelihood male members migrate from one society to another. This way there is a decrease in the number of males than females and polygyny takes place. Hypergamy also gives rise to essays on environmental sustainability polygyny. Under this system the parents of lower castes or classes want to improve their social status by marrying their daughters in the higher caste or classes.

4. Desire for essay male Child: Among the primitive people importance was given to make children than females. Thus man was free to have as many marriages as he liked on the ground to sustainability get male children. In some societies number of wives represented greater authority and status. Particularly the leaders of primitive society increased number of wives in order to prove their superiority. A single marriage was considered a sign of introduction child, poverty. On Environmental! So where marriage is taken as sign of prestige and prosperity the custom of polygyny is natural.

6. Economic Reason: Where the people of the poor families were unable to find suitable husbands for grade an essay their daughters they started marrying their daughters to rich married males. 7. Variety of Sex Relation: The desire for variety of sex relations is another cause of polygyny. The sexual instincts become dull by more familiarity. It is stimulated by novelty. 8. Enforced Celibacy: In uncivilized tribes men did not approach the women during the period of pregnancy and while she was feeding the child.

Thus long period of essays, enforced celibacy gave birth to three of charismatic leadership second marriage. In uncivilized society more children were needed for agriculture, war and status recognition. Essays On Environmental! Moreover, in some tribes the subject-by-subject structure, birth rate was low and essays death rate was high. In such tribes polygyny was followed to obtain more children. 10. Absence of leadership, children: According to Manu, if wife is unable to essays on environmental have children, man is permitted to have more marriages. He further says if a wife takes her husband then he should live with her one year and take another wife. 11. Religious Reasons:

Polygyny was permitted in the past if wife was incapable of three of charismatic leadership, forming religious duties in her periodic sickness because religion was given significant place in essays on environmental sustainability, social life. 12. Patriarchal Society: Polygyny is grade an essay, found only in the patriarchal society where more importance is given to males and male member is the essays sustainability, head of the family. (1) Better status of children: In polygyny children enjoy better status.

They are looked after well because there are many women in inspirational, the family to care. (2) Rapid growth of Population: In those societies where population is very less and on environmental sustainability birth rate is almost zero, for those societies polygyny is best suited, as it increases the population at essays, faster rate. (3) Importance of Males: In polygyny males occupy higher status. More importance is given to husband by several wives. (4) Division of Work: In polygyny there are several wives. Therefore, there is a proper division of work at essays on environmental, home.

(5) Variety of Sex Relations: Instead of going for extra marital relations husband stays at home because his desire for variety of sex relations is fulfilled within polygyny. (6) Continuity of Family: Polygyny came into existence mainly because of inability of a wife to produce children. Polygyny provides continuity to the family tree. Three Types Leadership! In absence of one wife other women in the family produce children. 1. Lower status of Women:

In this form of marriage women have very low status; they are regarded as an object of pleasure for their husbands. They generally do not have a right to take decisions about their welfare; they have to depend upon their husband for fulfillment of their basic needs. 2. Jealousy as stated by Shakespeare: “Woman thy name is essays on environmental sustainability, jealousy”. When several wives have to share one husband, there is bound to labour essay be jealousy among co-wives. Jealousy leads to inefficiency in their work. They are not able to socialize their children in on environmental, a proper manner in such atmosphere. 3. Low Economic Status:

Polygyny increases economic burden on labour essay, the family because in many cases only husband is the bread winner and whole of the family is dependent on him. 4. Population Growth: This type of marriage is harmful for developing society and poor nations because they have limited resources Further increase in population deteriorates progress and development of that society. 5. Essays! Fragmentation of Property: In polygyny all the children born from different wives have share in subject-by-subject structure compare essay, father’s property. Jealousy among mothers leads to property conflicts among children as a result property is divided and income per capita decreases. 6. Uncongenial Atmosphere: Polygyny does not promise congenial atmosphere for the proper growth and development of children. Sustainability! There is college essay, lack of affection among the members. As such families have large number of members. Sustainability! They fail to provide proper attention to all of them.

This gives rise to many immoral practices in the society. It is compare and contrast essay, a form of marriage in which one woman has more than one husband at a given time. According to essays K.M. Kapadia, Polyandry is a form of subject-by-subject structure essay, union in which a woman has more than one husband at a time or in which brothers share a wife or wives in common. This type marriage is prevalent in sustainability, few places such as tribes of Malaya and some tribes of India like Toda, Khasi and Kota etc. Polyandry is of two types: (i) Fraternal Polyandry and. (ii) Non-Fratemai Polyandry. (i) Fraternal Polyandry:

In this form of polyandry one wife is grade an essay, regarded as the wife of all brothers. Sustainability! All the brothers in a family share the same woman as their wife. The children are treated as the offspring of the eldest brother, it is grade an essay, found in some Indian tribes like Toda and Khasis. On Environmental Sustainability! This type of marriage was popular in Ceylon (Srilanka at present). (ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry: In this type of polyandry one woman has more than one husband who is not brothers. They belong to different families. The wife cohabits with husbands in teachers essays, turn. In case of Fraternal Polyandry, the wife lives in the family of her husbands, while in case of non-fraternal polyandry, the wife continues to on environmental sustainability stay in the family of her mother. This type of polyandry is found among Nayars of Kerala. 1. Lesser number of Women:

According to Westermark, when the number of women is lesser than the number of males in a society, polyandry is found. For example, among Todas of Nilgiri. But according to Brifficult, polyandry can exist even when the number of women is not lesser e.g. in Tibet, Sikkim and Laddakh polyandry is found even though there is not much disparity in the number of men and women. In some tribal societies female infanticide is present; as a result these female population is less than male population. Further males do not enjoy good status. Therefore, one female is married to a group of brothers and polyandry exists. 3. Matrilineal System: Just in contrast to above noted point, it has also been argued that polyandry exists in matrilineal system where one woman can have relationship with more than one man and the children instead of getting the name of father are known by mother’s name. Polyandry exists in such areas where there is scarcity of natural resources.

It is for this reason many men support one woman and her children. In societies where there is three of charismatic leadership, bridge price, polyandry exists. Brothers pay for one bride who becomes wife of all of them. 6. Division of Property: To check the division of ancestral property polyandry is favoured. When all the brothers have one wife then the sustainability, question of division of property does not arise. 7. Production and labour: Polyandry not only essays, avoids division of property but it also increases production in agriculture.

All the brothers work together because they have to support only one family. Essays On Environmental! Thus production and income increases, further there is no expenditure with regard to labour because all the husbands contribute their share of work. Polyandry exists in some societies mainly because of customs and traditions of that particular society. Generally, polyandry is admissions, found in such areas which are situated far away from modern developed areas. (1) Checks Population Growth: It checks population growth because all the male members of the family share one wife. As a result population does not increase at that rapid rate, the way in which it occurs in polygyny Therefore, it limits the size of the family. (2) Economic Standard: Polyandry helps to unhold the economic standard of the family. It strengthens the economic position of the family because all the members work for the improvement of the family. (3) Greater Security:

With large number of males working after the family affairs, other members of the family especially women and essays children feel quite secure. Greater security among the members develop sense of we-feeling among the members of the family. (4) Property is kept Intact: In polyandry family does not get divided. The property of the structure and contrast essay, family is held jointly and thus it is kept intact. (5) Status of Women: In polyandry one woman is wife of large number of husbands. As a result she gets attention of all the members and thus enjoys a good status in the family. She feels quite secure because in the absence of one husband other males are there to fulfill her basic needs.

When all the men have to share one woman, family quarrels and essays tensions are ought to be there. Husbands feel jealous of one another which adversely effect congenial atmosphere of the family. When children have large number of fathers they fail to select appropriate model for themselves. This adversely effects their personality configuration. (3) Health of the Woman: It adversely effects health of a woman because she has to satisfy several husbands. It not only three leadership, has negative effect on the physical health but also on on environmental sustainability, mental health of the woman. According to leadership biologists if the same woman cohabits with several men, it may lead to sterility, further lack of sex gratification give rise to extra-marital relationship of on environmental sustainability, husbands.

In matrilineal system where polyandry is found husbands do not enjoy high status. They do not give their name to the children. (6) Lack of Attachment: In many tribes where polyandry exists husbands do not live permanently with their families. They are visiting husband who visit the family for a specific period. They do not get love and affection of their children because children feel unattached to their fathers. (7) Less Population: This form of marriage decreases population growth. In some tribal societies where polyandry continues to exist may get extinct after a gap of few years.

This is another outcome of this practice. Group marriage is that type of marriage in which a group of men marry a group of women. Each man of male group is considered to be the husband of every woman of female group. Valparaiso! Similarly, every woman is the wife of essays on environmental, every man of male group. Pair bonded or Multilateral marriage are the substitute term for group marriages. This form of introduction labour essay, marriage is found among some tribes of essays sustainability, New Guinea and Africa.

In India group marriage is practised by grade an essay the Toda Tribe of Nilgiri Hills. Except on an experimental basis it is an extremely rare occurrence and may never have existed as a viable form of marriage for any society in the world. The Oneida community of New York State has been frequently cited as an example of essays, group marriage experiment. It involved economic and sexual sharing based on spiritual and religious principles. Like most group marriage on valparaiso university admissions, record, its time span was limited. Rarely do they endure beyond one or two generations. Levirate and Sororate: In levirate the wife marries the brother of the dead husband.

If a man dies, his wife marries the brother of her dead husband. Marriage of the widow with the essays sustainability, dead husband’s elder brother is valparaiso university admissions essay, called Senior Levirate. But when she marries to essays sustainability the younger brother of the dead husband, it is called Junior Levirate. In Sororate the husband marries the sister of his wife. Sororate is three types, again divided into on environmental sustainability, two types namely restricted Sororate and simultaneous Sororate. In restricted sororate, after the death of one’s wife, the grade an essay, man marries the on environmental sustainability, sister of unique college essay, his wife. In simultaneous sororate, the sister of one’s wife automatically becomes his wife. Concubinage is a state of essays on environmental, living together as husband and wife without being married. It is .cohabitation with one or more women who are distinct from wife or wives. Concubinage is sometimes recognised by various societies as an accepted institution. University Admissions! A concubine has a lower social status than that of a wife.

The children of a concubine enjoy a lower status in the society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on essays, this site, please read the grade an essay, following pages: