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Astro Malaysia Swot Analysis Essays and essay jobs Research Papers. ? SWOT ANALYSIS FOR LEGOLAND MALAYSIA SWOT analysis is a structured planning method . used by and management, companies to french essay about jobs, evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to their business operation. Chip Essay! The SWOT analysis objective is to identify the essay jobs, internal and external factors that are favourable to achieve the objective. The strengths is refer to the characteristics of the business that give it an advantage over others, while weaknesses is the characteristics that place the essay on disaster and management, business at a disadvantage. Amusement park , Amusement parks , Lego 708 Words | 3 Pages. Telekom Malaysia Berhad - SWOT Analysis Description: The . Telekom Malaysia Berhad - SWOT Analysis company profile is the french about, essential source for top-level company data and information. Telekom Malaysia Berhad - SWOT Analysis examines the company’s key business structure and operations, history and essay question on genetics products, and provides summary analysis of its key revenue lines and essay about jobs strategy. Telekom Malaysia (TM) is an integrated information and communications group. Credit card , Dublin , International Bank Account Number 782 Words | 3 Pages. Swot Analysis of Tourism in Malaysia. As an example, Malaysia is one of the twelve mega-biologically diverse countries in the world, which boasts at short love with author least 15,000 species of . flowering plants, 286 species of mammals, 150,000 species of invertebrates and essay about 4,000 species of essay about love author fishes in addition to the countless micro-organisms. Since there are so many beautiful natural elements, Malaysia was very successful in development of ecotourism, and it is french about, highly recommended for love with, tourists in the world. The tourist arrivals to Malaysia is 24.7 million.

Heritage tourism , Tourism , World Tourism Organization 2318 Words | 7 Pages. Astro All Asia Networks plc ( ASTRO ) - Financial and Strategic SWOT Analysis Review Summary . Astro All Asia Networks plc ( Astro ) is one of the Malaysia’s leading cross-media group which provides direct-to-home satellite pay television services, commercial radio and TV programming in french about jobs, Malaysia and Hong Kong. The company is involved in the production, acquisition, commissioning, and distribution of films; production, processing, and essay about named exporting animated motion pictures; research, development, and licensing. Consolidation , Corporation , Financial ratio 690 Words | 3 Pages. STORY 20 CARTOONKINI Astro rips off viewers, MCMC turns a blind eye SM Mohamed Idris 6:00PM Jun 20, 2011 Malaysians . Jobs! are gullible enough to essay question on genetics, be taken for a long ride by Astro , as the french essay jobs, government has given Astro too much leeway. This has caused Malaysian TV viewers to be short-changed and at the same time other operators have been snuffed out from essay on disaster and management entering the market and providing better service. Such a phenomenon is only seen in french essay jobs, Malaysia , with only one pay TV operator given. Free-to-air , High-definition television , Malaysia 748 Words | 3 Pages.

SWOT analysis for petronas malaysia. Essay Question On Genetics! Petroliam Nasional Berhad (PETRONAS) - SWOT Analysis Overview Petroliam Nasional Berhad (Petronas) is french about jobs, Malaysia . About Recalling! 's national petroleum company. Over the years, it has become a fully-integrated oil and gas corporation with operations in more than 30 countries worldwide. It is ranked among Fortune Global 500's largest corporations in the world. The company delivered another record performance for the fiscal year ended March, 2008.

Its strong and diversified base of upstream assets gives the company. Liquefied natural gas , Natural gas , Natural gas processing 1673 Words | 6 Pages. Essay! MALAYSIA AIRLINE SYSTEM BHD (MAS). Company Profile Malaysia Airlines started when a joint initiative of the Ocean Steamship . Sugar Essay! Company of french essay Liverpool, the Straits Steamship of Singapore and essay Imperial Airways led to a proposal to the Colonial Staraits Settlement government to run air service between Penang and Singapore. The result was incorporation of Malayan Airways Limited (MAL) on 12 October 1937. On 2 April 1947, MAL took to the skies with its first commercial flight as the national airline. However. Airline , Cathay Pacific , Delta Air Lines 1145 Words | 5 Pages. say a kitchen? wall web browser. 3 Li Drew 4 Li Drew Multimedia Research Topics and essay about jobs Projects • . Short About Love! To the computer science researcher, multimedia consists of french jobs a wide variety of topics: 1. Multimedia processing and coding: multimedia content analysis , content? based multimedia retrieval, multimedia security, audio/image/video processing, compression, etc. 2. Multimedia system support and networking: network protocols, Internet, operating systems, servers and research about clients, quality of service (QoS).

Document Type Definition , HTML , Hypertext 1544 Words | 6 Pages. retail equities, investment banking, and government relations. Essay About! CIMB has operations in Brunei, Bahrain, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Myanmar, . Malaysia , Singapore, Thailand, the US, the UK, and Vietnam. The company is headquartered in paper about, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia . This comprehensive SWOT profile of CIMB Group Holdings Berhad provides you an in-depth strategic SWOT analysis of the company’s businesses and essay about operations. The profile has been compiled by GlobalData to bring to you a clear and an unbiased view of. Bank , Banking , Financial ratio 623 Words | 3 Pages. INTRODUCTION The aim of essay named this report is to put together a SWOT analysis for Avis Singapore, to about, recommend how it can increase its . share market to compete better with other car rental companies in essay on disaster and management, the Singaporean market and identify other external forces that can affect the whole car rental market in french essay about jobs, Singapore. Essay About A Streetcar Named Desire! Avis is an french essay about, internationally recognised car rental company, it is placed second in the world and fifth in Singapore and identified as a strong brand. Avis opened its first location in Singapore. Car rental , Car rental companies , Customer 964 Words | 3 Pages. ?1.0 SWOT Analysis – An Overview SWOT analysis is about a streetcar named, widely used by corporation all over french about jobs, the world to . help them in developing their corporation’s business strategy.

It is sugar essay, a normal practice that when we conduct business strategy, the main point that we will look into is the strength and weakness that leads to the profit and loss of the french essay jobs, corporation. How we tackle the strength and weakness are by conducting study on sugar the opportunities and threats seen surrounding. SWOT is an about jobs, acronym that stands for. Albert S Humphrey , Business , Management 1226 Words | 5 Pages. MANAGEMENT SITUATIONS SWOT Analysis of Maxis A SWOT analysis is essay, a structured group activity . that is useful in identifying the internal and external forces that drives an essay, organization competitive in its markets.

SWOT is an acronym for desire, Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats. Strengths Weaknesses · Good network coverage around Malaysia . Essay Jobs! · Have strong brand image and as merge as the market leader in Malaysia . · Good deals and english literature careers special. French Essay Jobs! Consultative selling , Customer , Customer service 800 Words | 5 Pages. Principle of essay Management 303 SWOT ANALYSIS Professor Kasongo “Burger King, the second-largest Burger chain in the United . States, behind McDonald’s according to (Velasco, S. 2012)”. Burger King Corporation was founded in 1954 by James Mclamore and Daniel Edgerton, beginning the essay about jobs, Burger King legacy of and creative careers flame broiled beef and commitments to quality ingredients and essay about jobs friendly service (Burger King 2012). Burger King continues to make a positive impact in the community through their vision for food. Essay Named Desire! Burger King , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 911 Words | 3 Pages. About Jobs! 3.0 SWOT Analysis 3.1 Strengths (Kerin et al, 2009, p.46) stated that SWOT analysis is describing . an organization’s appraisal of its internal Strengths and short essay love with Weaknesses and about its external Opportunities and Threats. Padini is committed in essay a streetcar desire, providing customers with updated fashion wear which are coping with the ever-changing market trend. (Please refer to essay about jobs, appendix 1) The Strengths of Padini are that they are very aggressive in paper about, term of their advertising strategy. Besides that, they have promotional. Essay About! Brand , Brand management , Government 780 Words | 3 Pages.

SWOT ANALYSIS (BREADTALK) Strength * Well-known brand with strong brand equity -The BreadTalk brand has evolved to . become one of the most recognisable local brands in Singapore. In 2002, the literature writing, group won the “Singapore Promising Brand Award 2002” awarded by ASME and SPH and was also voted Singapore’s Most Popular Brand in french, a joint poll by the ASME and SPH. Essay Question! * Strategic retail locations, capturing strong market interest and creating brand awareness -The group’s outlets can be found in about jobs, accessible. Brand , Food , Light rail 589 Words | 3 Pages. SWOT ANALYSIS Borders Group (or the company) operates book, music and movie superstores, mall-based bookstores, as well as an . online store. Borders Group offers eBooks through its online website,

Online retailing is a growing industry, and by leveraging its presence in the channel, Borders Group can retain its customer base as well as improve its revenues. However, the discretionary spending in essay a streetcar desire, the US is highly pressurized due to french about, increased unemployment. As the cautious American. 2011 , , Borders Group 2318 Words | 7 Pages. Creative Use of S.W.O.T Analysis [edit] Strategic Use: Orienting SWOTs to An Objective Illustrative diagram of . Research! SWOT analysisIf SWOT analysis does not start with defining a desired end state or objective, it runs the risk of essay about being useless. About Recalling! A SWOT analysis may be incorporated into the strategic planning model. An example of a strategic planning technique that incorporates an objective-driven SWOT analysis is SCAN analysis . Strategic Planning, including SWOT and SCAN analysis , has been the subject. Factor analysis , Human resource management , Management 767 Words | 3 Pages. stability in the service sector especially hospitality industry in Malaysia . Essay About! 1.1 SWOT ANALYSIS . SWOT Analysis is a model that analyzes an organization’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to create the basis of a marketing strategy. This model is a documenting model that helps to analyze the internal Strength (S) and Weakness (W) of a company as well as company’s external Opportunities (O) and Threats (T).

This level of essay on genetics analysis enables an organization to determine whether there are factors. Hospitality industry , Hotel , Kuala Lumpur 916 Words | 4 Pages. SWOT ANALYSIS 2 . Jobs! SWOT is a business management anagram that stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. It is a tool that originated in the business world but is useful for any kind of strategic planning. Research About Deam Recalling! It’s a simple but useful framework that helps you focus on about jobs your strengths, minimize threats, and take the greatest possible advantage of opportunities available to. Research Paper Deam! Competition , Management , Marketing 758 Words | 3 Pages. SWOT Analysis is a strategic planning tool used to evaluate the french jobs, Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a . project or in a business venture. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieving that objective.

The technique is credited to chip sugar, Albert Humphrey, who led a research project at Stanford University in about jobs, the 1960s and 1970s using data Strategic Use: Orienting. Human resource management , Management , Marketing 1686 Words | 7 Pages. ? SWOT analysis , with its four elements in a 2x2 matrix. Short Essay About Love With! SWOT . analysis (alternately SWOT Matrix) is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses/Limitations, Opportunities, and french about Threats involved in a project or in a business venture. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and on genetics external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieve that objective. French Essay About! The technique is english writing careers, credited to Albert Humphrey, who led. Factor analysis , Hilbert space , Human resource management 688 Words | 3 Pages. SWOT analysis From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search A SWOT Analysis is french essay about, . a strategic planning tool used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture or in any other situation of an english writing, organization or individual requiring a decision in pursuit of an objective. French Essay! It involves monitoring the marketing environment internal and external to the organization or individual.

The technique is credited to english and creative writing careers, Albert Humphrey. Factor analysis , Harvard Business School , Management 793 Words | 4 Pages. French Jobs! Sample of research paper recalling SWOT Analysis : SAMSUNG | Samsung is no longer the company that it used to be, it is a company that has put in a . lot effort and money for changing its reputation. Today, Samsung is striving and growing into french essay, one of the most successful companies ever. Essay On Disaster! It has an french essay, extensive product line that caters to many different people. It no longer operates on low profits;it’s striving on the highest.Thus, it is no surprise that many of chip essay us would be interested in the SWOT Analysis of Samsung.

Here in. Company , Inflation , Marketing 968 Words | 3 Pages. According to What is SWOT Anlysis (2011), SWOT analysis is an analysis used to identify the internal . factors (strengths and weaknesses) of the company as well as external factors (opportunities and threats) of the company. Strength The supports from the Malaysia's government for tourism industry become one of the powerful strength for this industry. According to Hamzah (2008), tourism industry gives second highest contributor after Manufacturing industry. French Jobs! According to essay about named, (2012), Langkawi. Asset , Customer service , Factor analysis 1479 Words | 5 Pages.

SWOT Analysis ? ? The SWOT analysis is derived from the internal and external assessments. It makes . use of a matrix to french essay, plot the organization’s strengths (S), weaknesses (W) as well as the love author, opportunities (O) and threats (T) in the external environment: Strengths/Weakness: Internal to the organization ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Distinctive competence Performance vis-a-vis mandate Skills level/experience of members Effectiveness and clarity of present strategies Management systems, processes and procedures. French About Jobs! Assessment , Following , Management 414 Words | 7 Pages. SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis is a very useful technique for looking at the overall future of a . Essay Question On Genetics! leisure and tourism organisation. STRENGHTS: What is the about, business good at? What is the business’ advantages in terms of its products, services and facilities? What things do the customers and staff see as good? WEAKNESSES: What is the business not good at?

Where does the business fall down in short love with author, terms of its products, services and facilities? What holds the business back? OPPORTUNITIES: THREATS: . Arboretum , Drayton Manor , Future 560 Words | 4 Pages. SWOT analysis of about Honda This is Honda Motor Company SWOT analysis for 2013. For more information on love with author . how to do SWOT analysis ,please refer to our article. Essay! Company background Name Honda Motor Company, Ltd. Industries served Automotive, Aviation, Telematics Geographic areas served Worldwide Headquarters Japan Current CEO Takanobu Ito Revenue ?7.948 trillion (2012) Profit ?211.48 billion (2012) Employees 179,060 (2012) Main Competitors Daimler AG, Ford Motor Company, General Motors Company. Automotive industry , Flexible-fuel vehicle , General Motors 1018 Words | 4 Pages. ?Part 1 – Creating a SWOT Analysis for a Company.

A SWOT analysis is literature, a tool a business uses to plan . and focus on key issues. It is similar to a personal SWOT analysis where you would focus on about jobs your strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats but instead you perform the SWOT on a company. Strengths and on disaster weaknesses are internal factors. Essay Jobs! For example: A strength for research recalling, a business could be: a new, innovative product or service location of your business quality processes and procedures . Competition , Competitor analysis , Critical thinking 781 Words | 4 Pages. French Essay About Jobs! Assignment Course title: Strategic Management Topic: SWOT analysis of careers Excusive event management and catering. . Submitted To, MD.Rakibul Hasan Lecturer of Prime University Dhanmondi Annex Dhanmondi Submitted By, Md.Hasnaine Akanda MBA, 33th Batch ID: 132020130 Definition of ' SWOT Analysis ' A tool that identifies the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of an organization. Specifically, SWOT is a basic, straightforward model that assesses what an. French About Jobs! Management , Marketing , Organization 582 Words | 3 Pages. Definition Of SWOT Analysis 3. SWOT Analysis of a General Store/Corner Shop. 4. Conclusion 5. . References EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This assignment helps us to know about the meaning of SWOT analysis . SWOT analysis uncovers our strength, opportunities, weaknesses, threats. SWOT analysis of a general store will spread light on all above internal and external factors that are favourable or unfavourable to achieve our desire goal.

Definition of SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis is a strategic. Distribution , Fortune 500 , Management 387 Words | 3 Pages. SWOT Analysis Kialeigha Short Foundations of Business BUS 210 March 16, 2010 . Introduction This paper gives a detailed description of the business plan that I have chosen. The SWOT Analysis will discuss strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for my proposed tanning salon. The paper will discuss in detail and, in some instances, how different factors of external forces and trends and internal forces and.

Greatest hits , Management , Marketing 849 Words | 4 Pages. SWOT ANALYSIS SWOT Analysis for Studio 67: An Organic Resturaunt Business Oscar Barraza . Essay Question! University of about Phoenix SWOT Analysis I chose to do a SWOT analysis on the business plan of Studio 67 which is a trendy organic medium size restaurant located in Portland, Oregon. Essay Named! SWOT stands for Strength Weakness Opportunities and Threats. The SWOT analysis helps entrepreneurs come up with a strategic plan and determine if a product, service, or business is worth the risk. The SWOT analysis is like a. Health , Management , Marketing 765 Words | 3 Pages. UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA Faculty of Information Technology SWOT Analysis IT POLICY AND STRATEGY Prepared for . A.P.D.

Wan Rozaini bt Sheik Osman Prepared by Mustafa Musa Jaber (801607) 2009 May 15, 2015 1 content A. Outline 1.Introdection 2.Definitions of SWOT Analysis 2.1.Strength 2.2.Weakness 2.3.Opportunities 2.4.Threats 3. Starbucks 4. Conclusion May 15, 2015 2 A. Outline Through this presentation :?Definition of essay about jobs SWOT Analysis ?Strength ?Weakness ?Opportunities ?Threat ?Starbucks May. Coffee , Coffee culture , Coffeehouse 705 Words | 16 Pages. ?Case SWOT Analysis Strengths: Hershey Foods has grown from a one-product, one plant operation to a $4 billion company with . Essay About! many U.S. and international plants providing an array of quality chocolate and confectionery products and services. Hershey entered 1996 as the largest candy maker in the United States with 30.7 percent market share. Hershey is the largest pasta manufacturer in the United States with 28.4 percent market share. Hershey Foods Corporation is committed to essay about, the values.

Chocolate , Hershey Entertainment and english careers Resorts Company , Hershey Trust Company 619 Words | 3 Pages. SWOT Analysis : Creature Nannie Noelani Munoz-Hangca University of Phoenix BUS/210 Foundations of Business Brian Kemble . August 2, 2013 SWOT Analysis : Creature Nannie A SWOT Analysis is a strategic planning exercise that focuses on identifying the internal Strengths and Weaknesses of the proposed new venture. (Jones, 2007) This type of french essay about jobs Analysis also focuses on assessing the external Opportunities and Threats in the competitive market. For my SWOT Analysis assignment I chose to review. Economics , Kennel , Kennel club 785 Words | 3 Pages. ? SWOT ANALYSIS SWOT analysis of hotel industry in this regard can provide a thorough insight to . whether or not the chip sugar essay, industry is contributing towards the achievement of its goals. For now, let’s consider the hotel industry in India, which is one of the essay, fastest growing in short essay, the world.

Strengths The first step to a SWOT analysis of hotel industry in India will be identifying its strengths. There are more than 1000 classified hotels with a room availability of around 97,000 rooms which can easily cope with. Economics , Hotel , Management 1043 Words | 5 Pages. SWOT ANALYSIS SWOT Analysis I must say before reading the chapter this week I have never heard . of a SWOT Analysis . After reading the chapter it makes perfect sense in how companies use it strategically to be more competitive in the industry that they are in. In choosing which areas of the SWOT Analysis to discuss in this paper I have taken the financial side into perspective. For the Strength I have chosen - Our financial position and credit rating are good. For the essay jobs, Weakness I have chosen. Better , Credit history , Credit rating 945 Words | 3 Pages.

THE TIMES 100 Edition 14 IKEA: SWOT analysis and sustainable business planning Lesson plan Content area · Strengths · W . Short Essay About With Author! eaknesses · Opportunities · Threats Method This resource can be used for general classwork, homework or learning skills for investigation. It is a good simple exercise in bringing the various terminologies together in understanding what it means, and how it can be used in context. This allows the pupils to bring out more in discussion and french essay about understand that the topics. Economy , IKEA , Lean manufacturing 582 Words | 3 Pages. Michelle Pressley SWOT Analysis University of short about with author Phoenix BUS/475 This paper will discuss a SWOT . analysis for an event planning business.

The analysis will discuss economic, legal and essay jobs regulatory issues and trends in short essay about with, the particular state for the business. The paper discusses how to critique the business to adapt to change. The supply chain and the organization of the french about, business will be discussed. The paper will identify issues and opportunities made aware from the SWOT analysis . Research Paper About Deam Recalling! Major issues that. Business , Event planning , Management 1464 Words | 5 Pages. of Innovation One of the most popular tools in any marketing plan is a SWOT analysis . Essay About Jobs! The following website . has many interesting examples of SWOTs done for companies we are all familiar with (Starbucks, Wal-Mart, etc.). Please study them carefully: they should provide some insights into the nature of a SWOT analysis . After that, develop a SWOT analysis for UMUC. How did the various SWOT elements get reflected in sugar, the recently unveiled UMUC Strategic Plan for 2009-2013. French Essay About! Academic degree , Higher education , Management 643 Words | 3 Pages.

SWOT Analysis By Stacy Collett (Jul. 19, 1999) In order to swat the competition you need to essay question on genetics, understand SWOT . . SWOT stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. It's a way to analyze a company's or a department's position in the market in essay about jobs, relation to research paper deam recalling, its competitors. The goal is to identify all the major factors affecting competitiveness before crafting a business strategy. Essay Jobs! SWOT Breakdown SWOT identifies the internal and external factors that affect an research paper recalling, organization. Here’s. Compaq , Core competency , Delta Air Lines 758 Words | 3 Pages. carry out an analysis of the market in w hich the product or service will be offered. This will provide details of the jobs, needs of the market so . that the product or service can be targeted at the correct market and in the correct way. Figure 3.2.1 shows the overall marketing planning process. To understand the market, we use a SWOT analysis . The extensive marketing audit - comprising both internal and external analysis - will enable the particular company to sugar, put together a SWOT analysis for the business. Market , Market research , Marketing 1959 Words | 6 Pages.

SWOT ANALYSIS SWOT Analysis Kenneth Boland Foundations of Business . Kimberly Jones SWOT Analysis The business plan that I show to perform the SWOT analysis on was the Start- Up Real Estate Business Plan for french jobs, Golden Valley Real Estate. Essay On Disaster And Management! This is a business plan for a company that had not yet been established and jobs seemed to be the most challenging. This plan appeared to be well constructed and provided a lot of information that could be used for the. Business , Management , Marketing 768 Words | 5 Pages. Conducting a SWOT Analysis A SWOT Analysis takes is a method for examining the essay about a streetcar named desire, Strengths, . Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats facing a business. It can give you insight into your company's position in the competitive arena. When carrying out a SWOT analysis to determine how you rate against a competitor, the following guides should be used: Strengths Consider your company's strong points. This should be both from your own and your customers' points of view.

Don't be modest; be realistic. French Essay! Competition , Competitor analysis , Customer 788 Words | 3 Pages. SWOT Viability Analysis SWOT Viability Analysis on News Corp Schmitt Management Consulting . Abstract Buying the newspapers in Rupert Murdoch’s empire is not a viable action for profit today. With the on-going scandal and lawsuit claims, the research about deam recalling, reputation of the corporation has been damaged beyond repair and your takeover would be fruitless. The future potential regulatory restrictions and fines are unknown today and there-fore leave a large portion of the picture unclear. Being able to hire. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act , James Murdoch , New York Post 851 Words | 4 Pages. management has decided to do a SWOT Analysis of the following areas-: (1) Customers, (2) Suppliers, (3) Competitors and (4) . Intermediaries. (a) What does the term SWOT Analysis mean? (4 marks) (b) Identify and outline the impact on french essay about the company’s operations of the TWO trends in essay, EACH of the four areas identified above. Essay About Jobs! (21 marks) (a) In order to develop a marketing plan or strategy which can identify preferred and on disaster likely directions, the firm can conduct a SWOT Analysis which is a general and quick. Firm , Management , Market research 1255 Words | 4 Pages. SWOT Analysis : Starbucks Melissa Moore BUS402: Strategic Management and Business Policy Bradley Simon April 22, 2013 . SWOT Analysis : Starbucks SWOT is an analysis of a company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and about threats. This gives a company an idea of short essay about love author things that are working for french, them as well as areas of opportunity. It also informs them where there are areas of opportunity and short with the threats that may keep the jobs, company from essay about improving.

The strengths and weaknesses are internal and the. Caffeine , Coffee , Customer 1220 Words | 4 Pages. SWOT analysis overview Swatch is a manufacturer and distributor of watches. . It also supplies movements and components to . third-party watchmakers in Switzerland and around the world. The group has a global presence, which provides it a distinct competitive advantage in the market place. However, intense competition may erode the essay about, group's margins and research about deam recalling reduce its market share. Strengths | Weaknesses | * Global market presence * Strong brand portfolio * Extensive product offering. Currency , Foreign exchange market , Luxury good 1348 Words | 5 Pages. Lowe's Companies, Inc. SWOT Analysis , 1-10. DATAMONITOR: Lowe's Companies, Inc. (Jan.

2011). Lowe's Companies, Inc. . SWOT Analysis , 1-10. Retrieved May 20, 2012 from B. James (personal communication, May 17, 2012) -------------------------------------------- [ 1 ]. Retrieved May 20, 2012 from french about [ 2 ]. DATAMONITOR: Lowe's Companies, Inc. (2011). About A Streetcar Named! Lowe's Companies, Inc. SWOT Analysis , 1-10. [ 3 ]. DATAMONITOR. Customer , Customer service , Hardware stores 1568 Words | 5 Pages. SWOT Analysis Opportunities The Bank is essay about, very well placed with a good and assured customer base from the level of the government . and the public sector business. Many patriotic Nationals will do business with Sample Bank Ltd because they know that the profits of the Bank belong to the people of the sugar essay, country and are used for the country’s development. The availability of modern telecommunication systems and technology will facilitate the improvement and essay about jobs strengthening of the Bank’s international business. Bank , Caribbean Community , CARICOM Single Market and Economy 1235 Words | 4 Pages.

SWOT Analysis [Your Name] [Institution’s Name] SWOT Analysis Redbox Company: An . Overview Redbox is chip sugar, America’s ultimate destination when it comes to high quality DVDs or CDs from huge collections of movies and games. Rental services offered by the company are immensely appreciated all over the United States and thus, its reputational standings in about jobs, the competitive market are perking up to ceilings of admiration. The company started functioning since 2002 and gradually and characteristically. Competition , Customer , Customer service 737 Words | 3 Pages. Sugar! before they get affluent.” This paper analyses the french, effects of the short about love author, demographic transition of low fertility, mortality rates, and net migration on population . ageing in the Caribbean nation of Trinidad and Tobago, using the SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis . It also seeks to review this Caribbean nation's strategies to combat the negative effects of population ageing by applying Erik Erikson’s theory of the french about, stages of psychosocial development. Discussion Since the 1950's. English Literature Writing! Ageing , Aging , Demographic economics 1721 Words | 6 Pages. . About Jobs! SWOT is an acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Strengths (S) and Weaknesses (W) are considered to be internal . factors over which you have some measure of control. While Opportunities (O) and Threats (T) are considered to be external factors over which you have essentially no control. Chip Sugar! It offers a foundation to evaluate internal potential and limitations and the probable/likely opportunities and threats from the french essay about, external environment. Essay On Disaster! A consistent study of the environment.

Bank , Central bank , Financial services 694 Words | 3 Pages. SWOT has a long history as a tool of strategic and marketing analysis . No one knows who first invented SWOT . analysis . It has features in strategy textbooks since at least 1972 and essay about can now be found in textbooks on research about marketing and any other business disciplines. It advocates say that it can be used to gauge the degree of fit between the organisation's strategies and french its environment, and to suggest ways in which the organisation can profit from strengths and opportunities and and management shield itself against weaknesses. About! Economics , Factor analysis , Management 964 Words | 3 Pages. ? SWOT Analysis SWOT Analysis on ability to find a job . after graduation Introduction A SWOT analysis stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and english careers threats. The strengths and weaknesses show internal resources or capabilities as well as internal deficiencies. The opportunities and threats show external negative factors as well as positive external factors. I will be completing a SWOT analysis on how they will influence my job search after graduation.

Academic degree , Bureau of Labor Statistics , Employment 734 Words | 3 Pages. French Essay About! SWOT ANALYSIS OF ULTRA TECH CEMENT INDUSTRY: The SWOT analysis about Ultra Tech cement and its . position in the market. The company is one of the best in the cement industry, analysing it through the different framework of analysis in order to judge the actual situational and industrial position of the company in research paper deam recalling, order to find out how actually is the company doing. The company is facing a lot of problem regarding its promotion and marketing techniques due to which it faces a short of essay awareness. Cement , Clinker , Concrete 796 Words | 3 Pages. Essay About Named! SWOT Analysis The SWOT analysis is french essay about, very important especially in the hotel industry. When it comes . to literature and creative writing careers, tourism, the hotel industry is very important. In fact, it is a supporting service that affects the presence of tourists in a certain place. The SWOT analysis is vital to determine if the industry is french about jobs, helping in english literature and creative, the achievement of french about jobs tourism goals. SWOT analysis is a tool for auditing an organization and its environment. It is the first stage of english writing planning and helps marketers to focus on key issues.

Hotel , Hotel chains , Hotels 1069 Words | 4 Pages. ROYAL CARIBBEAN CRUISES SWOT Analysis SWOT ANALYSIS RCC is the second largest global operator of . cruise ships and holds a market share of about 35% in the oligopolistic North American cruise market. The company may face a considerable decline in its earnings due to increasing fuel prices. Strengths Dominant business position Strong brand recognition Consistent increase in revenues Weaknesses Increasing expenses Low efficiency Inadequate presence in high growth European market Opportunities . Celebrity Cruises , Cruise lines , Cruise ship 1109 Words | 4 Pages. French! MANAGEMENT PROCESS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR (MGT 501) Assignment – 1 TOPIC: SWOT Analysis done on a company. . SWOT Analysis It’s an analytical tool, which is used for identifying and research paper about categorizing significant internal factors (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats) of a project or business venture. Essay About Jobs! Introduction: SWOT Analysis on Emirates Airlines.

The largest airline in the Middle East and one of the growing brands in the world, Emirates Airlines is the english literature careers, subsidiary of Emirates. Essay About Jobs! Asia , Dubai , Emirates SkyCargo 507 Words | 4 Pages. Page One Swot Analysis By Jason Brummitt BUS 210 Foundation of Business 08-13-11 Kalaveeta Mitchell . Page Two I choose the Miles Garden Carpentry company to conduct a Swot analysis on essay about a streetcar named desire only because I have operated and ran my own carpentry business is the past. For this reason, I feel I am able to better assess. Construction , Entrepreneurship , Management 851 Words | 5 Pages.

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Phonetics and Phonology Essay Sample. English is a widespread language, spoken all over the world. It is the mother tongue of people of different nationalities, such as: British, American, Australian, Canadian and South African. It is the second language (language of instruction, used in administration and education) of several countries in about, Asia and Africa and it is essay about named desire learned as a foreign language in almost every country. Languages have different accents meaning they are pronounced differently by different people depending on geographical factors, social classes, age groups and educational backgrounds. When we speak of an accent, however, it is important to differentiate it from a dialect, which we use to refer to a variety of french essay about jobs, a language that differs not only in pronunciation but in vocabulary, grammar and word-order, too. The term accent refers to pronunciation differences only. Pronunciation can be studied from two points of view: the phonetic and the phonological.1. Phonetics is essay on disaster and management a linguistic science which studies and describes the sounds of speech in essay, a language, the named desire, way humans make, transmit and receive speech sounds.

Phonetics can be divided into articulatory phonetics which studies the way the essay about, vocal organs are used to essay on disaster produce speech sounds, there is acoustic phonetics which studies the physical properties of speech sounds, and auditory phonetics which studies the french about jobs, way people perceive speech sounds. In this paper I concentrate mostly on the articulation of speech sounds in the English language, with little mention of their acoustic and auditory characteristics. Phonology is the study of sound system of a language, the general properties displayed by this system; it studies how sounds function in relation to each other, the way the speech sounds form systems and patters in human languages. The accent that I concentrate on in this paper; the chip sugar essay, accent that is one that is most recommended for foreign learners studying British English, is the accent that is familiar as being used by most announcers and french essay about, newsreaders on national and international broadcasting channels. It is known as Received Pronunciation (or RP). RP has been selected by phoneticians as a type of speech which represents a number of types of deam, speeches used by educated people from different parts of the country. It is the language of Southern English speakers, particularly from London and surrounding counties where the oldest grammar schools and universities are, and is most widely recognised and understood all over the world.

1. Types of Spoken English in Britain. The forms of spoken English in Britain vary considerably more than in most other areas of the about jobs, world where English is spoken.2 1. Received Standard English (RSE) is the speech that strictly follows the rules of RP, (Received Pronunciation). 2. Standard English has various types: London Standard, Southern Standard, Scottish Standard, etc. Although these standards have certain features in common, they differ and each standard is to some extent coloured by the geographical area in english literature and creative writing, which it is spoken. It is largely the speech of the educated people in these areas and is usually completely intelligible throughout the country. Essay Jobs! 3. Modified Standard is the speech of people who have been brought up among the people who speak a local dialect or substandard form of speech, or have spoken one of these themselves.

During instruction, this form has been modified to short about author somewhat halfway between dialect or substandard speech and standard. This type of spoken English can be heard in cities and urban areas among people who have had a secondary level of education. 4. French Essay About! Substandard speech is probably what is english commonly referred to as vulgar speech and it is usually heard in about jobs, the large cities among the working class and especially among those who are uneducated. 5. Regional dialects represent a pure form of speech that has developed in a given rural area. It actually represents a particular type of English pronunciation, which has developed naturally among people over centuries. Since population in rural areas is very static, this form of speech has generally been unaffected by other forms of speech. It is intelligible over essay about a streetcar named a small area, this regional dialects are usually mutually unintelligible. A few words on American English. Although there are regional differences in the pronunciation, American English shows surprising uniformity. Standard speech in the United States is a rather normal habitual speech used by french about, the educated members of the American society, both in formal and informal situations. Writing Careers! American English is divided into three regional types: Eastern (spoken by about 10% of the population of the US), Southern (spoken by about 25% of the total population) and General American (GA, spoken by the rest of the country – the mid-West and the North).

GA is the English spoken by TV announcers, newsreaders and commentators, mainly described in American textbooks and courses of English. 2. Physiology of Speech Organs. The first requisite of speech is breath. French Essay Jobs! During the act of normal, healthy breathing, air is set up from the lungs through the windpipe and out either through the short love, nose or through the mouth. Normally, the breath is silent and in order to convert it into speech we must make some kind of intentional modification of the stream of breath (breath stream). Essay About! This breath stream can then be modified intentionally at a great number of different points on its way out of the lungs, through the respiratory tract and research paper recalling, through the about, mouth and nose. These points at which the breath stream can be modified to produce sounds are called speech organs.

They are: the vocal cords, the tongue, the lips and the roof of the mouth. Paper About! The first three speech organs are movable, while the last is fixed, except for the soft palate. 2.1. The Vocal Cords. The first point at about jobs which the breath stream can be modified is the larynx.

It. is placed at the upper end of the wind pipe and english literature writing, it is a bony structure rather like a “box” which contains two lip-like structures stretched from the front to the back of the french jobs, larynx called the vocal cords. Chip Sugar! In the front they are fixed, but in the back each vocal cord is attached to essay cartilages which are movable. The vocal cords can thus take up four different positions: i. Wide apart – when the vocal cords are wide apart for normal breathing and usually during voiceless consonants like p, f, s. ii. Narrow glottis – if air is passed through the glottis when it is about deam recalling narrowed the french essay about, result is a fricative sound, which is not very different from a whispered vowel. About Deam! It is called a voiceless glottal fricative. iii. Position for french essay, vocal fold vibrations – when the edges of the about named, vocal cords are touching each other, or nearly touching, air passing through the glottis will usually cause vibration. iv. Vocal cords are tightly closed – the vocal cords are firmly pressed together so that air can not pass between them. When this happens, we call it a glottal stop or glottal plosive.3.

The tongue is the most flexible speech organ. For the purpose of phonetic study it is divided into four imaginary sections: the french essay jobs, tip of the tongue, the blade, the front and the back. Chip Sugar Essay! It has great elasticity and therefore can raise or lower either its back or front part, and the tongue can also glide from one position to another, this way producing sounds with different qualities. Essay About! When the front part is raised to different height towards the hard palate, the front vowels are formed. The back of the tongue is raised towards the soft palate in the articulation of the essay, back vowels. When either the front or back of the tongue glides from one position to another, various diphthongs are formed. French Jobs! To produce consonants, the tongue is used to block the breath stream at one or more points in the mouth (plosives, nasals), or by essay, narrowing the breath passage so that audible friction is created (fricatives). The tongue takes part in the formation of almost all English sounds. As a moveable speech organ, the lips are capable of producing sounds themselves, e.g. /p/.

They can also combine with other speech organs to produce vowels and some consonants, for example /i:/, /f/, /v/, or /w/. Since they are flexible, they can take up several positions: spread, open wide, close rounded, open rounded, neutral and closed. i. Spread – the lips are slightly apart and energetically spread. The vowels produced in this position are: /i:/, /i/, and / e/. ii. Wide open – the lips have no effect on the breath stream. The only vowel produced with lips in this position is /?:/. iii. Close rounded – the lips are rounded with a small gap between them and they can be flat rounded, / ?/, or protruded, /u:/ and /w/. iv. Open rounded – the lips have a rather large gap between them: in this position they can be flat rounded to french essay about form / ?/, or protruded to produce /?:/. v. Neutral – the on disaster and management, lips are held in a relaxed position with a medium distance between the jaws. This is the position of the lips to produce /?/, /?/, /?/ and /?/. vi. Closed lips – when the french essay about, lips are completely closed so that the passage of the breath stream is chip sugar blocked all together. Then either the lips suddenly open /p/ and /b/ or the soft palate lowers /m/. The lower lip can be brought into contact with the french essay jobs, upper teeth to from a narrow passage so that audible friction is created when the breath stream pushes its way through the passage /f/ and /v/.

2.4. The Roof of the Mouth. The roof of the paper deam, mouth can be divided into three sections: the teeth ridge, the french essay jobs, hard palate and the soft palate. i. The teeth ridge is a fixed speech organ whose chief function is to serve as a point of contact, for and creative, the tip of the tongue, in the production of some consonants. It also serves both as a place for narrowing the passage of the breath stream together with either the tip or the blade of the french essay, tongue, in chip essay, the production of /s/, /z/ and /r/ and as a place of vibration of the tongue for the thrilled consonant /r/. Essay! Furthermore together with the hard palate it takes part in the production of /?/, /?/, / t?/ and /d?/. ii. The hard palate is the hard part of the palate between the teeth ridge and the soft palate. It is also a fixed speech organ. Its chief function is to serve as a point at which the breath stream can be narrowed by the front of the tongue in chip sugar essay, the production of the single voiced palatal fricative /j/.

The hard palate together with the alveolar ridge is used in the creation of /t?/, /d?/, /?/ and /?/. iii. The soft palate is a movable speech organ which has three main functions: to french essay about serve as a point of contact for essay on disaster, the back of the tongue in the production of the velar consonants /k/, /g/ and essay about, / ?/. to serve as a place towards which the named, back of the tongue is raised when the back vowels /?:/, /?/, /?:/, /?/ and /u:/, and the diphthongs /??/ and /??/ are formed. it can be raised so that it touches the back wall of the pharynx. In this position the breath stream is prevented from escaping through the nose and it all goes through the mouth regardless of jobs, whether there is an obstacle or not. All English sounds produced with the soft palate are known as oral sounds and they include vowels, diphthongs and the majority of English consonants. When the soft palate is lowered, nasal consonants /m/, /n/ and /?/ are produced. Fig. 1 Speech Organs.

3. General Characteristics of English Sounds. English speech sounds have six main characteristics. They are: 1) Quality of sound, which mainly depends on the speech organs that take part in its production, as well as the position they take in the formation of the sugar essay, sound. This is especially true of vowels, with the raising and lowering different parts of the tongue to determine the shape of the mouth cavity when pronouncing, for example /i/ in comparison to /I:/. In this sense, the difference is mainly in the quality of the sound, not the length. 2) Quantity of french essay jobs, sound, which usually refers to the length. It often helps to distinguish minimal pairs, which include voiced and voiceless sounds at the end: e.g. About Deam! heard [h?:d] and hurt [h?:t]. French Essay About! Unlike, say, plosives and affricates which are incapable of being lengthened, difference in length is noticeable in vowels, especially long vowels and diphthongs. 3) Vibration of the vocal cords. A common characteristic is research recalling that the sounds may or may not be accompanied by vibration, i.e. may or may not be noticed.

As all vowels and diphthongs are voiced, the vibration of the cords renders phonemic differences when consonants are in question. For example /p/, /b/, /s/, /z/, /k/, /g/, /t/, /d/, /f/, /u/, /t?/ and /d?/. 4) Sonority of sounds, also knows as audibility of sounds, means that a given sound may or may not penetrate over a great distance. The degree of sonority depends on its quality and has been determined scientifically. What has been discovered is about that vowels, diphthongs, semivowels and continuants have the greatest degree of sonority. Chip Essay! Voiceless fricatives and plosives have the least.

5) Degree of force (stress). Each sound can be pronounced with a varying degree of force, i.e. a greater or lesser amount of air pressure that is used in the pronunciation. The stronger the stress is, the louder the sound is pronounced. 6) Pitch (intonation). This characteristic is generally applied to voiced sounds. A speech sound may be high or low in pitch or may have a pitch which is somewhere between high and low.

Furthermore, syllables and words connected in speech have their own particular pitch and together produce what is known as the intonation of the sentence. We have already said that the stronger the stress – the french essay about, louder the essay, sound. It also means that the french essay, sound has a higher pitch. When the stress is weaker, the pitch is generally low. This shows clearly that the question of intonation is already related to the phenomenon of stress. The smallest sound unit in recalling, a language that is capable of conveying a distinct meaning is called a phoneme. If we compare words such as heat, seat, feet, sheet, cheat, meat and neat, we shall notice that they differ in essay about, respect to only one sound: /h/, /s/, /f/, /?/, /t?/, /m/ and question, /n/ in initial position. These are called minimal pairs. Minimal pairs are pairs of words that differ in only one segment (speech sound) displaying systematic contrasts and consequently exemplifying difference in meaning.

So, an french essay about jobs essential property of a phoneme is that it functions contrastively, i.e., it distinguishes one word from the other. Every vowel, diphthong and deam, consonant in the sound system of a language has no meaning in itself, but when contrasted with other vowels, diphthongs or consonants of the same language, they form words which carry meaning. This sound is then called a phoneme of that particular language. A concrete realization of a given phoneme in about, a language is called an allophone. Allophones are actual spoken variants of a given phoneme.

Where phonemes are abstract linguistic units, allophones are concrete speech sounds. Conditioned vs. Free Variants. Conditioned variants are in fact allophones of chip essay, a phoneme. They are conditioned because they depend on a particular phonetic environment. Thus, for instance, the English phoneme /l/ has at least three allophones (conditioned variants) that are complementarily distributed: clear [ l ] (in pre-vocalic position and before /j/) e.g. lip, flow, will you dark [ l ](in post-vocalic and jobs, pre-consonantal position) e.g. tell, cold, film devoiced [ l ](following voiceless plosives) e.g. play, clean.

On the other hand there are cases where there is a choice between two or more allophones of the same phoneme in research paper, identical phonetic environments. A good example of this is the word water: [w?:t ?] or [w?: r ?] (in Australian English). These examples display cases of french essay about, free variation i.e. free interchange of chip essay, speech sounds on allophonic level. However, free interchange of speech sounds (without changing meaning) can appear on phonemic level as well. Consider these examples: issue/isju:/ or /i?ju:/ would you/t isju:/ or /t i?ju:/ could you/kudju/ or /kud?u/ the suffix –ed/reitid/ or /reit?d/ Free variants are present in both standard English and its dialects and whether they occur on phonemic or allophonic level, they are perfectly acceptable pronunciations.

The only difference is in french essay about jobs, personal preference. Therefore, free variants are acceptable pronunciations of one and the same word. 5. Classification of English Speech Sounds. There are two main classes of essay question, speech sounds known as vowels and consonants. A vowel may be defined as a typically voiced sound in the pronunciation of which the breath stream has a free passage through the mouth and/or nose, and for which there is no audible friction. There are two sub-classes of vowels: pure and compound vowels – diphthongs. A pure vowel consists of only one vowel elements, while a diphthong is composed by essay about, two vowel elements. A consonant may be defined as a sound, voiced or voiceless, in paper about, the pronunciation of which there is about jobs either a complete or partial obstruction, or audible friction which prevents the breath stream from escaping through the mouth or nose. This distinction is purely physiological. The acoustic distinction is short about with author based on the relative sonority of the essay about, speech sounds, vowels being more sonorous than consonants. The third distinction given by linguistic analysis is the pronunciation of the [?i] in front of a vowel and question, an [?n] in front of a consonant.

5.1. Classification and Characteristics of essay, Vowels. Vowels can be classified in four different ways according to: The part of the tongue used in their formation, according to which we have front vowels: /i/, /i:/, /e/, /?/ and with, /?/, as they are formed when the front part of the tongue is raised towards the hard palate to different heights, back vowels: /a:/, /?/, /?:/, /u/ and /u:/, in the pronunciation of which the back of the french essay about jobs, tongue is raised towards the sugar, soft palate to different heights, and french essay jobs, central vowels: /?:/ and /?/ which are formed by raising the centre of the tongue towards the junctures between the front and the back of the roof of the mouth. The height of the tongue in the mouth, according to which we distinguish closed vowels: /i:/, /i/ and / u:/, /u/, produced with the careers, tongue in a high position in the mouth., half-closed vowels: /?u/ and /ei/ formed when the tongue is french essay raised to a half-closed position in the mouth (but no pure vowels are articulated this way), half-open vowels: /e/, /?/, /?:/, /?:/ and /?/, produced with the tongue raised to on disaster and management a half-open position, and open vowels: /?/, /a:/ and /?/, produced with the tongue in low position. The position of the lips the vowels occupy in their production, according to french about which two types of vowels are formed, rounded vowels: /?:/, /?/, / u:/ and /u/, produced with rounding of the essay and management, lips, and unrounded vowels: /i:/ , /i/, /e/, /?/, /?/, /a:/, /?:/ and /?/ which do not require rounding. The inherent length of the vowel, according to which we distinguish long vowels: /i:/, / u:/, /?:/, /?:/ and /a:/ which are normally longer in duration, and short vowels: /i/, /e/, /?/, /?/, /?/, /u/, /?/, which are normally of shorter duration.

5.2. Classification of Diphthongs. A diphthong is defined by Jones as “a sound made by gliding from one vowel to another … represented phonetically by french about jobs, sequence of two letters.” Some are classified in accordance with the movement of the tongue defined in the cardinal vowel system: opening diphthongs are those in chip sugar, which the second element is a more ‘open’ vowel than the first: that is, the tongue ends lower in the mouth, for example /??/ (‘oh’); conversely, closing diphthongs are those in which the second element is a closer vowel than the first: that is, the tongue ends higher in the mouth, for example /ai/ (‘I’); centring diphthongs are those in which the second element is schwa: that is, the tongue ends in french essay jobs, the most ‘neutral’, or central, position in essay, the mouth, for example /e?/ (‘air’). French Essay About Jobs! A second classification is by the comparative importance of the different elements: rising diphthongs are those in which the second element seems to be the more important, such as ‘view’, in essay question, which the /u:/ (‘oo’) sound is french essay dominant over the introductory short /j/ sound which precedes it, falling diphthongs are those in which the first element seems to be the more important, such as /??/, in which the /?/ is heard as ‘stronger’ than the /?/. Most English diphthongs are falling diphthongs. Diphthongs may also be classified by the extent of the movement of the short love author, tongue: wide diphthongs show a larger movement, e.g. from an essay about ‘open’ vowel to a ‘close’ one, such as /a?/ (‘I’) and /a?/ (‘ow’); narrow diphthongs show less movement, e.g. from a ‘half-close’ vowel to a ‘close’ one, such as /e?/ (as in ‘day”).

5.3. Classification and Characteristics of Consonants. Consonants can be classified in essay on disaster and management, three different ways, according to: The manner of production or articulation: a) plosives: /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/ and /g/, articulated with complete obstruction at the mouth passage entirely blocking the air flow for a moment b) nasals: /m/, /n/ and /?/,where we have a complete obstruction of the mouth passage allowing the air to pass through the nose c) laterals: /l/, where we have partial closure of the breath passage allowing the breath stream to escape freely out essay about of the mouth d) fricatives: /f/, /v/, /s/, /z/, /h/, /r/, /?/, /?/, /?/ and /?/, articulated by narrowing the mouth passage so as to make the sugar, air-flow turbulent, while allowing it to french essay about pass continuously e) affricated: / t?/ and /d?/, articulated with first a complete obstruction and then a narrowing of the mouth passage f) semivowels: /j/ and /w/, articulatory like vowels, but function like consonants because they are not syllabic An obstruction is formed stopping the breath stream completely at some particular point so that the breath stream is compressed behind this obstruction to build up air pressure which when released produces plosives. About With! There are four points for air obstruction and they are 1) the lips /p/ and french, /b/ = bilabials, 2) teeth ridge /t/ and /d/ = alveolars, 3) the soft palate /k/ and /g/ = velars and 4) the essay, vocal cords / ? / (glottal stop) = glottal. French Essay Jobs! Closing the mouth passage completely and at research deam recalling the same time lowering the soft palate so that the breath stream escapes through the french essay jobs, nose is how the nasals are formed. The place of articulation. We distinguish eight main groups according to this classification and they are: a) bilabials /p/, /b/, /m/ and /w/ which are formed at the lips. b) labio-dentals /f/ and /v/ which are produced by the conjunction of the sugar, lower lip and the upper teeth. Essay About Jobs! c) interdentals /?/ and /?/, formed by the insertion of the tip of the tongue between the teeth. d) alveolars /t/, /d/, /n/, /l/, /s/, /z/ and essay on disaster, /r/ pronounced with the tip of the blade of the tongue near or against the teeth ridge. e) post alveolar / t?/, /d?/, /?/ /?/, the area between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate f) palatal /j/, which is the hard palate or roof of the mouth g) velar /k/, /g/, /?/, pronounced with the back of the tongue and the soft palate h) glottal /h/, produced at the space between the vocal cords Classification of consonants according to french jobs the vocal cords: a) voiced: /b/, /v/, /?/, /m/, /d/, /z/, /l/, /n/, /j/, /?/, /d?/, /g/, /?/, /w/ and essay desire, /?/ in essay jobs, the pronunciation of which the vocal cords vibrate. b) voiceless: /p/, /f/, /?/, /t/, /s/, /?/, /t?/, /k/ and /h/ in love with author, the pronunciation of which the vocal cords do not vibrate. 6. Essay About! Syllables and Their Parts. Words can be cut up into units called syllables.

Humans seem to need. syllables as a way of segmenting the essay and management, stream of speech and giving it a rhythm of strong and weak beats, as we hear in essay, music and on disaster and management, they exist only to make speech easier for the brain to process. A word contains at least one syllable. Most speakers of English have no trouble dividing a word up into essay, its component syllables. Sometimes how a particular word is short about author divided might vary from one individual to about jobs another, but a division is always easy and chip, always possible. Syllables have internal structure: they can be divided into parts. The parts are onset and rhyme; within the rhyme we find the about, nucleus and coda. Not all syllables have all parts; the smallest possible syllable contains a nucleus only. A syllable may or may not have an onset and a coda. Onset is the essay on disaster and management, beginning sounds of the french essay jobs, syllable; the ones preceding the nucleus. These are always consonants in English.

The nucleus is a vowel in question on genetics, most cases. About Jobs! If a word contains more than one syllable, each syllable will have the usual syllable parts: e.g. win-dow, to-ma-to, pre-pos-te-rous, fun-da-men-tal. Rhyme (or rime) is the rest of the syllable, after the onset. The rhyme consists of a nucleus and coda. The nucleus, as the question, term suggests, is the core or essential part of essay about, a syllable. Essay A Streetcar Desire! A nucleus must be present in order for a syllable to be present. Syllable nuclei are most often highly ‘sonorant’ or resonant sounds that can be relatively loud and carry a clear pitch level. In English and most other languages, most syllable nuclei are vowels. French Essay About Jobs! The English “liquids” [ r , l ] and the nasals [ m , n ] can be the nuclei of syllables under certain conditions. [ r ] can be a nucleus as easily as a vowel, in any position: the words ‘bird’, ‘word’, ‘her’, ‘fur’; there is no vowel in the pronunciation of these syllables, even though they have one in short essay about love, the spelling. Jobs! [ l ] and essay about a streetcar desire, the nasals [ m n ] become syllable nuclei when they follow an alveolar consonant in essay, the last syllable of essay about author, a word. Essay About Jobs! This happens in the relaxed or casual rather than very formal articulation of the word.

Compare casual vs. formal pronunciations of ‘button’, ‘bottle’, ‘bottom’. 7. Stress and Intonation. There are two kinds of stress: words stress and sentence stress. In English, one or more of the chip essay, syllables in each content word are stressed. In some words, where more than one vowel is stressed, one vowel receives great. stress or accent (primary/main) marked with ? where the other stress vowel gets secondary stress marked with ` e.g. resignation linguistics stress is french essay contrastive in English and essential in cases where it is used to a streetcar distinguish between nouns and verbs e.g. subject (noun) subject (verb) When words are combined into phrases and french essay, sentences, one of the syllables receives greater stress than all of the others, only one of the vowels in a sentence/phrase receives primary stress (or accent).

All the other stressed vowels receive secondary stress. Primary stress is placed on an adjective followed by a noun when the two are combined in a compound noun, but when they are not joined in this way it is the noun that receives the main stress. e.g. Essay! example: tightrope tight rope Intonation Intonation is important because it shows syntactic differences example: Josh is going. (statement) Josh is going? (question) A written sentence which is ambiguous may become unambiguous when spoken by use of french essay about, intonation e.g. Josh left direction for Ana to follow. – if Ana is to follow Josh, the rise in pitch would be on the first syllable of the word “follow”, followed by essay, a fall in essay about, pitch follow – if Ana is to follow the directions Josh left, then the pitch comes on sugar, the second syllable of the word “directions” di rections. 8. Aspects of Connected Speech. In most of the discussion so far, we have been describing speech sounds separately, in syllables and french essay, words as if they are always going to essay and management be pronounces carefully and essay about jobs, deliberately. But normal, every day speech isn’t like that, especially when spoken by a native. Most of native speakers’ talk is fast and spontaneous and it requires the articulators to move rapidly from one sound to another without stopping. However, the process of producing “connected speech” affects the pronunciation of certain segments; some segments have a tendency to short run together, extra segments may be inserted to ensure smoothness of speech, some segments adopt a less defined phonetic form and some completely disappear.

8.1. Assimilation. When two sound segments occur in sequence and essay, some aspect of one segment is taken by the other, the process is known as assimilation. This process happens because it is quicker, easier and more efficient for deam, our articulators as they do their job. Consonants and vowels alike are subject to assimilation.

The phrase have to, for example, is very often pronounced [h?ft?], informally even written “hafta”, because the adjacent sounds influence each other to become more alike. In the phrase I have to go, the sound /v/ is influenced by the following sound /t/ in a way that in connected speech we produce a voiceless version of /v/ resulting in what sounds more of essay about, a /f/, showing the assimilation from a voiced to a voiceless sound. The vowels /i/ and /?/ in isolation are pronounced without any nasal quality. However, when we say the word pin or pan in everyday speech, the anticipation of forming a final nasal consonant will make it easier to go into the nasalized articulation in english and creative, advance and as a result the vowel sounds in these words will be nasalized. Elision is the process of about, eliminating sounds in normal, rapid pronunciation. On Disaster! Elision mostly occurs where clusters of consonants exist. Take the word government, for example, /g?v?m?nt/, mashed potatoes /m?? p?teit?uz/, next day /neks dei. etc. French About Jobs! Who syllables may be elided, in essay on disaster and management, words such as library /laibri:/, and some words are simply prone to elision, such as of french essay about, before consonants in cup o’ tea, lots o’ people, and others such as gonna and wanna, from going to and want to, respectively.

A sound may be introduced between words or syllables to help them run together more smoothly. A primary example of this is the pronunciation of word-final /r/ in RP. On Genetics! RP speakers pronounce /r/ is such words as clear and mother when they are followed by a vowel, e.g. clear answer /kli?r/, but /kli?/ in about jobs, clear question. The intrusive “r” is also very present with native speakers of RP, who regularly link adjacent vowels with an “r” even when there is no ‘r’ in research paper about deam recalling, the spelling ( example a) as well as with open back vowels (example b). e.g. a) media interest /mi:di?(r)intr?st/ b) law and order /l?:(r)?nd ?:d?/ There are two sub-disciplines in linguistics which deal with sound and they are phonetics and phonology and in order to understand the essay jobs, sound system of the English language, its various accents and how these sounds combine and pattern together, we need aspects of both. Phonetics provides objective ways of essay question on genetics, describing and analyzing the range of sounds humans use in their languages. More specifically, articulatory phonetics identifies precisely which speech organs and muscles are involved in producing the different sounds of the language. Those sounds are then transmitted from the speaker to the hearer, and acoustic and auditory phonetics focus on the physics of speech as it travels through the air in the form of sound waves, and the effect those waves have on a hearer’s ears and brain. While phonetics deals with the production, properties and perception of the speech sounds, phonology, deals with the sound patterns of the french jobs, particular language, and in what speakers and hearers need to know to be speakers of that language. Phonologists investigate which function a sound has in a language and recalling, which sounds can be combined; which sounds can follow each other, and which can not.

Unlike most European languages, English is not a phonetic language: words can have identical vowel letters and be pronounced in different ways, e.g. great, treat, and threat; vice-versa, words with phonologically identical vowels may have different spellings, as in jobs, sea, seize, and careers, precede, hence, the importance of french about jobs, teaching both pronunciation and spelling. Nowadays, everyone is expected to speak a bit of English, but trying to find someone in Italy who can speak it ‘clearly’ – intelligibly -, without mangling it, is no easy task at essay about a streetcar named desire all. That is where phonetics and phonology comes in, and about jobs, it is a fascinating subject and essential for any student wanting to learn (and understand!) a foreign language – especially English! Is this the perfect essay for essay and management, you? Save time and order Phonetics and Phonology.

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a computer essay This page analyzes a#xa0; computer games essay #xa0;and also notes how you can make good use of the question to plan and organize your essay. Take a look at this IELTS task 2 question: Nowadays many people have access to computers on a wide basis and a large number of french children play computer games.#xa0; What are the positive and negative impacts of playing computer games and what can be done to minimize the bad effects? Remember to always analyze the question carefully. The topic should be fairly clear: Remember to also look carefully to see if the topic is being narrowed down to a particular aspect of the topic. In this case it is: Now you need to english literature writing careers, check what the task is.

How many things do you have to write about? Hopefully you realized there are three things that you can easily turn into brainstorming questions: What are the positive impacts of essay computer games on children ? What are the negative impacts of computer games on children ? How can the negative impacts be minimized ? Your answers to these questions will form your computer games essay. You do not have much time and you have three things to question on genetics, answer, so one or two ideas for each is enough, as remember you will need to explain your ideas and give examples. Essay About Jobs! Now, take a look at the model answer. English Literature Writing Careers! You should spend about 40 minutes on about this task. Write about the research deam, following topic: Nowadays many people have access to computers on a wide basis and a large number of children play computer games. What are the positive and negative impacts of playing computer games and what can be done to french about jobs, minimize the bad effects? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge. Paper About Recalling! Write at least 250 words. French Essay About Jobs! Computer Games Essay Model Answer: Access to computers has increased significantly over recent decades, and the number of children playing games on computers has increased too.

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Home › Sample Essays › Computer Games Essay. Oct 02, 17 12:12 PM. You are going to another country to study. Essay On Disaster! You would like to do a part-time job while you are studying, so you want to ask a friend who lives there for. September 2017 - Brainstorming and Planning an Essay. Oct 01, 17 04:32 PM. French About Jobs! I sent you an essay question last Friday and asked you to come up with a plan to about, answer the question. This was the essay question: The best way to jobs, understand. Multinational Organisations and Culture Essay. Oct 01, 17 04:11 PM. Multinational Organisations and Culture Essay: Improve you score for IELTS Essay writing by studying model essays.

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Esperanza is paper a foil of Cisneros’ beliefs and. Diego Rivera , Frida , Frida Kahlo 979 Words | 3 Pages. ?Ferney Forero Professor Cynthia Robinson English 101: Writing and essay about, Research March 2013 Gender Expectations Society often expects . certain type of behavior from everyone. But in the big picture, this behavior is only based on about a streetcar desire, what type of sex you are and what your responsibility according to your sex. French Jobs. In today’s society, we have discrimination; high expectations and a set of essay on disaster and management, norms that in a lot of about jobs, cases only question, apply or are strictly apply in french, one gender only.

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Deutscher Jugendliteraturpreis , Love , Markus Zusak 803 Words | 3 Pages. English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now the most widely used language in the world. It . is spoken as a first language by about the majority populations of several sovereign states, including the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and a number of Caribbean nations; and it is an official language of almost 60 sovereign states. It is the and management, third-most-common native language in french about, the world, after Mandarin Chinese and. Anglo-Saxons , England , English language 835 Words | 3 Pages. THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING ENGLISH English can be said to short essay with, be the most important and the most useful language in about jobs, theworld today. . Essay On Disaster. There are many reasons why you should study the language properly.The first reason is English will help you a lot when you further your studies.Almost all the french essay jobs, books at the universities are written in English . So, if your English is poor,you are going to have a big problem studying there.The second reason you have to study English well is that it will help you to get ajob. Dialect , England , English language 938 Words | 3 Pages. grouped is because they are all wrote in literature writing, Standard English . The extract C is written in french jobs, Standard English as it was written in . 1912; therefore its structure is formal and paper, dated. It was written as a dairy like account but for a legal audience so no slag words would be used as the person was speaking to someone trying to french essay, find out what had happened with the titanic.

Also again like the reason of the formality the extract was written in Standard English as people in 1912 were much more educated than now. English language , Grammatical person , Linguistics 900 Words | 2 Pages. In Sandra Cisneros book, The House On Mango Street , the theme is of how fantasizing keeps you going. In the paper, story there are many different . quotes and stories explaining how Esperanza and her friends would daydream about life in the future. Explaining how Esperanza’s friends are waiting for the perfect husband to come and french, marry them and take them off out of on disaster, Mango street. Almost every story has someone daydreaming about how much better life is french jobs going to be when they get older. Explaining . 2008 albums , Daydream , English-language films 455 Words | 3 Pages. Tori Taylor English 1301. Feb 11,2013 Second Language Speaking Affects Peoples Lives Learning to speak a different language is hard. If . On Disaster. you are a second language speaker different emotions go through one’s mind.

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4. Hindus consider cows: sacred Muslims consider pigs: dirty . Begum Hazrat Mahal , British Raj , Indian Rebellion of 1857 735 Words | 4 Pages. Madeleine Noriega Professor Fong English 1A.32W 1 October 2012 Revolutionize the Future When was the essay, last time you craved for burger, . fries, or even a milkshake? Or how about the last time you bought a pack of cigarettes? These days, advertisements from various industries have managed to draw people’s attention and lure them into buying the products that are presented to french, them. As a result, fast foods and tobaccos have ultimately become a major part of our lives. These advertisements have been. Advertising , Cigarette , Fast food 2615 Words | 7 Pages. Vanessa Reyes Mrs.Kelley Pre-IB English , pd.6 5/28/12 Catcher in short love with, the Rye Essay In the about jobs, book The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. . Salinger there are many symbols that are used to on disaster, represents Holden’s real feelings. The author uses these symbols to essay about, portray the characteristics of Holden. They show how Holden is really feeling but they just mix it into symbols so that the reader can think about it and analyze the symbol in their own way.

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But with Greek life also comes the negative stereotypes about about a streetcar named, it. Jobs. People think Greek life is all about binge drinking and having sex with random people. They never truly get to english and creative, know and french essay jobs, experience the real side of the Greek community. They don’t know that Greek. Alpha Phi , Fraternal and service organizations , Fraternities and sororities 2614 Words | 6 Pages. discrimination was fully utilised in Celebrity Big Brother 2007’’. This is exactly why my argumentative essay agrees with the question on genetics, statement written . above. Reality shows indeed provide poor models for the younger generation.

My topic is about what kind of reality shows are screened on essay about, TV and paper deam, how that influences the younger generation in essay jobs, a negative way. (Reality shows - facts and effects, 2014) (How to write an argument essay ) Reality shows encourage negative aspects such as promoting sexualisation, overindulgence. Adolescence , Big Brother , MTV 1333 Words | 4 Pages. DO A 30. Last year/ she/ was/ a student/ in my school. A S V C A 31. Birds/ fly/ in the sky/ in english literature and creative writing, the evening S V A A 32. . Essay About Jobs. We/ play/ cricket/ in the ground/ everyday S V O A A 33. She/ teaches/ me/ English /well/ daily S V IO DO A A 34.

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Ambition is a word that I believe can relate to essay, anyone at some . point of english, his or her life. The dictionary defines it, as “a strong desire to do or achieve something” ( which I think doesn’t show any negative connotation or actions. However, it is ambition what has lead many people in essay, history and throughout time to commit acts that are considered immoral or unethical with the only objective to achieve what the. Accept , Guilt , Lady Macbeth 1532 Words | 4 Pages. Bachelor(BSc/BA), GPA Division Karachi/Sindh , Pakistan OTHER CERTIFICATES 2009 ACMA (Stage III) Institute of Cost Management Accountant of . Pakistan, Pakistan IT SKILLS Windows Office tools MS Word, Excel Advanced LANGUAGES English Urdu Working knowledge Fluent COMMENTS I remember these information. . Audit , Auditing , Auditor's report 328 Words | 4 Pages. The main characters, Romeo and research deam recalling, Juliet, who experience the light think that this light will never fade. French Essay. It is clear, however, that by short essay about with author the end of the french, play . darkness has consumed any remaining light for these tragic lovers, Romeo and Juliet. In this essay , I will show how light is presented at some of the highest points in the play, and essay question, how darkness is shown at some of the lowest parts.Romeo and Rosaline The very first mention of Romeo in the play is almost instantly followed by associations with. Benvolio , Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Light 979 Words | 4 Pages.

facing our city( our earth). In my opinion, pollution and population are the most serious issues. As people don’t protect the enviroment, they make the . water polluted, make the air polluted. French Essay. 12. The foreign language I’d like to learn besides English . 13. The food we eat has profound effects our health. Chip Essay. 14. French About. An account of a difficult decision that you had to make.

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The first novel that will be discussed in this essay . is Harper Lees award winning classic To Kill a Mockingbird. The novel is about love author renowned for its warmth and humour, despite dealing with serious issues of essay jobs, rape and racial inequality. Racial discrimination is a prevalent theme throughout the novel, as shown when an literature, innocent coloured man is automatically presumed guilty, even though the women who is claiming these. Culture , Discrimination , Novel 1246 Words | 2 Pages. The Loss of Innocence on Mango Street Often in literature, authors create plot by writing about characters maturing throughout the story. One . work that explores childhood to adulthood is The House on french jobs, Mango Street by Sandra Cisneros. In this novella, Esperanza Cordero is a young girl who lives in a poverty stricken area in Chicago.

During the story, Esperanza grows up from being an adolescent to chip, a young adult. In the novella, the theme is that losing innocence brings about maturity. Cisneros expresses. Esperanza , Fiction , Gain 800 Words | 3 Pages. humanity, and about, fear for survival.

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The Generals no longer had power over the hostages because they were all so intrigued with . Roxanne’s singing. A Streetcar Desire. The famous quote “music has charms to soothe a savage breast”, by the English author William Congreve, relates to the novel as well. Music has the power to enchant even the french, roughest people. Roxanne’s music captured the Generals attention, taking away from essay about named desire their once evil and cruel personalities. The narrator stated, “Terrorist. Ann Patchett , Emotion , Hostage 810 Words | 3 Pages. get the freshman 15 where you gain 15 pounds. Sometimes if you’re not able to jobs, go to the gym just keep some weights in your room or do sit ups or push-ups. Short Essay. . Being away from french jobs home you’re not always going to eat healthy, but just try your best to have fruit and vegetables every day. Question. College really can drain your body so you got to make sure that you get up to french essay jobs, 9 to 8 hours of sleep a day.

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congo essay Mapping Africa: Problems of Regional Definition and Colonial/National Boundaries. by Ralph A. Austen. frica is perhaps the most mapped of the french world's major regions. Back in essay, my school days during the 1940s and french essay about, 1950s, the continent was studied only in geography classes.

If it appeared at about deam, all in studies of history or politics, the central issue was colonialism, which again involved maps of the boundaries which European powers had drawn between the territories they carved out for french about jobs themselves. Once African Studies came into maturity as a study of developments within indigenous societies and and management, cultures, there was an understandable hostility to maps as external impositions. Nonetheless, cartography is french about jobs, essential to grasping both the forces within Africa and the constraints--both natural and political--which continue to place this region at a disadvantage in the global order. More specifically, maps can help us understand three major issues in research, the history of Africa: first, the physical and ecological factors which define this continent both internally and in relationship to the outside world; secondly, indigenous representations of french essay about space in the precolonial era, which provide a basis for putting more recent Western cartography into perspective; and, finally, colonial boundaries, which represent both European interventions in Africa and the continuing cartography of postcolonial development. Continent/regions: Geometry and geography. In its most basic cartographic representation, Africa is a well-defined geometric entity: a continent surrounded by natural bodies of water on all sides except for a small isthmus in the extreme northeast joining it to western Asia (and even this is now broken by the Suez Canal).

There is, however, a geographic convention of dividing Africa into Mediterranean and sub-Saharan zones, with the former treated as an extension of the essay Middle East (Maghreb the Arabic term for North Africa means West) while the latter is the true Africa. Another division distinguishes tropical and temperate zones, with the latter category including not only the Maghreb but also South Africa, whose relative hospitality to European settlement is thus explained. Such distinctions are not politically acceptable in jobs, present-day Africa (the Organization of African Unity includes states from all portions of the essay and management continent) but maps can help us decide whether they have any geographical and historical justification. If we look again at the continental outline of Africa, it is clear that the northern and northeastern portions are separated by relatively narrow (sometime very narrow) bodies of water from Europe and Asia, thus explaining why they have been in close communication with those continents since ancient times. However, the Atlantic and Indian Ocean coasts--especially the former--are quite distant from other major land masses. Moreover, their coastlines have relatively few indentations, meaning that most of the inhabited areas are also far from any coast; compare this to profiles of Europe and the Middle East. Essay. Furthermore, while the Nile is navigable throughout the entire extent of Egypt (about 700 miles), the rivers linking the tropical interior to the coast (the Niger, Congo, Zambezi, etc.) are widely separated from paper recalling one another and essay about, generally navigable less than 100 miles inland, where all of them encounter cataracts, due to abrupt rises in essay named, land elevation. Thus limits of water transportation--the most efficient means of long-distance carriage prior to the Industrial Revolution--left sub-Saharan Africa relatively isolated from the french about rest of the Old World and even internally divided for most of its history.

The Sahara desert is chip, also a barrier to land travel, although one that was breached (while far from eliminated) around 1 CE by essay about jobs, the introduction of camels into the region. The vegetation map also indicates very different ecological patterns in the various parts of the continent. The savanna and tropical rain forest that dominate the tropical regions require different cropping patterns than the chip temperate zones and french essay jobs, are generally less secure environments for the support of large populations. The major language divisions broadly, but not always consistently, follow these same patterns. The north and northeast are dominated by Afro-Asiatic languages, the tropical region by the Niger-Congo family and the south, until fairly recently, contained large areas in which the languages of aboriginal hunter-gatherers and short essay love with, pastoralists (Bushman/Khoi) were still spoken, indicating the late immigration of Niger-Congo (Bantu in this case) speakers (and very much later European arrivals). French Essay About Jobs. To divide Africa along these lines--Mediterranean, Black African and South African--may thus be perceived as racist but any more unified view of the continent must at least take into account the question internal geography suggested by maps of physical endowments and the historical distribution of populations. While cartography in french essay jobs, sub-Saharan Africa is english careers, generally associated with outside perceptions and even economic and political impositions, there are indigenous traditions of representing space which pre-date colonial rule.

Those most consistent with European practices are linked to Islam and jobs, Middle Eastern culture, which entered the sub-Saharan regions of the continent as early as the eighth century CE. Muhammad Bello, the highly literate ruler of the Sokoto Caliphate in the north of present-day Nigeria could thus provide early nineteenth-century European explorers with a reasonably accurate map of his domains and the major trade routes within them. However, it is not clear whether such visual representations were used for internal purposes within this state and political boundaries are not indicated with any degree of precision. Research Paper About Deam. In this case of formal visualization, just as in the oral statements about the spatial dimensions of African states recorded in many other instances (Wilks), power is seen as radiating out from a clearly defined center to about jobs more vague frontiers, sometimes marked by (but not necessarily identified with) natural features such as the Niger river (in the Sokoto case). This political cartography stands in strong contrast, as will be seen, to modern conceptions of statehood expressed in question on genetics, colonial (and postcolonial) African boundaries. Precolonial African representations of space were not limited, however, to political and economic issues. The most developed and striking forms of cartography used landscape references to express ideas about essay about jobs, identity, migration histories, mythology, and relationships with spiritual forces.

They were definitely created for internal use rather than communication with outsiders and might take the sugar form of elaborate artifacts such as the Luba lukasa or wall decorations, temporary drawings on the ground, body tattoos and even compass orientations inscribed on to objects which do not themselves represent space (Bassett). These complex forms of indigenous cartography provide evidence of African ability to think systematically and graphically about space and force us to extend our own conceptions of maps (which were not always such practical devices in french, earlier European history). However, colonial rule ultimately imposed modern European cartography upon Africa. Colonial maps and national boundaries. European cartography is a complement of other technologies of political power: literate bureaucratic agencies (these existed in essay a streetcar desire, the Sokoto Caliphate and other African Islamic states, but in limited form), the need for regular tax collection and even, at times, conscription of populations for french essay about military or public works service. It has also been argued in the much-cited work of Benedict Anderson that such colonial mapping ultimately created national identities among the multiple ethnic groups which found themselves within colonial boundaries (or had been more loosely incorporated into pre-colonial kingdoms and english literature and creative writing, empires).

Tropical Africa is a good test for this proposition, since colonial rule lasted here for french jobs less than a century, national states have been somewhat insecure entities since independence, yet the colonial maps have survived as the delineators of boundaries between these states. All this happened despite the arbitrary nature of essay much colonial map-making, which has been noted by many African critics. Conferences and diplomatic maneuverings in distant European capitals often drew lines to deal with tensions among the essay jobs colonizing powers rather than addressing internal African issues. What has been less noticed are the frequent boundary changes made after the original partition to suit further intra-European concerns--most notable, but by no means the only one, being the outcome of World War I (Austen). Whatever the grounds upon which colonial maps were drawn, it has not been easy to chip sugar propose an alternative cartography which would better suit the natural or historical features of Africa, whether the landscape and indigenous states or ethnicity, now recognized as a fluid and about jobs, often arbitrary set of markers, as much (pace Anderson) the sugar product of internal colonial mapping as of more autonomous developments (Ranger). Colonial maps did impose some serious disadvantages upon about Africa, although perhaps less due to the specific boundaries they established than to the way they imposed outwardly oriented development patterns upon the continent. Essay Love With Author. Balkanization into numerous territories of varying sizes rather than a few big units is french, only a problem if one assumes that bigger is better, which is not demonstrated by on genetics, the relative success of various postcolonial states e.g. some of the very large ones such as the Republic of Congo and essay about, Sudan have experienced the most severe problems (Herbst 139-72). More significant, perhaps, was the competitive outward orientation of transport networks that did not link African territories to one another but rather tied each to a port within its own colonial domain and short about with, ultimately to trade with its European metropole. About Jobs. But this outward orientation and recalling, dependence upon modern infrastructures is also due in significant part to the internal geography of the continent, as already indicated. It is french jobs, also important to note that once African states gained freedom from research paper European rule, they all became staunch defenders of the existing boundaries. The charter of the Organization of African Unity government thus contains an agreement by the signatory governments to respect the frontiers [of all member states] existing on their achievement of national independence.

In the extensive turbulence of jobs postcolonial African politics, there have been very few attempts by states to english literature take over significant portions of their neighbors' territories. The only successful secession movements are based on previous colonial boundaries (Eritrea, Somaliland). Some scholars have argued that the existing boundaries are, nevertheless, arbitrary and that the states operating within them have attained only juridical as opposed to empirical sovereignty (Jackson and Rosberg). Juridical sovereignty refers to territorial entities maintained by french, agreements among outside powers (in this case both the international community and named desire, the rulers of french essay other African states) rather than by real integration of the resident populations into a common political community. The ongoing crises in such states as Angola, the Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone and on genetics, Somalia suggest that colonial maps have not laid out a stable basis for essay about jobs nationhood in Africa. However, no alternative cartography suggests itself.

The colonial regimes established boundaries that at least allowed the beginnings of complete territorial control although in practice, European rulers never attempted to exercise such control to the full degree that was demanded by subsequent African national regimes. (Herbst: 94-96). Africans have sometimes tried to question go beyond the about jobs national model to chip create regional economic communities on the model of Western Europe but these have also failed. The most important such bloc, ECOWAS (the Economic Community of West Africa States) was mobilized militarily in the 1990s to about jobs deal with crises in author, specific states. But here too, the seeming emergence of the largest West African state, Nigeria, as a kind of dominant regional power could not be sustained due to the internal costs of such an essay about, effort. Essay On Disaster And Management. The best clue that maps give us to the current situation is french essay about, that areas with readily accessible mineral resources are more susceptible to the kind of warlord politics that actively challenge the sovereignty of colonial successor regimes. However, warlordism, even when based on ethnicity, has not produced sustainable regimes (Reno). Instead, it is essay, another example of how external interests--in these cases buyers of easily exportable resources such as diamonds--may determine the french geography of African power. For the present therefore, and perhaps for the immediately foreseeable global future, African cartography may be telling the same story as it did a half-century ago: that the modern mapping of this region is still linked to with author its asymmetrical relationships with outsiders. ABOUT THE AUTHOR | Ralph A. Austen.

Ralph A. Austen is Professor of African History and co-chair of the Committee on African and African American Studies at the University of Chicago. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1966. His current research focuses on the political economy and cultural dimensions of essay about jobs European overseas expansion, the Atlantic Slave Trade in African and African-American memory, and essay about, the historical development of African oral and written literature (focusing on the Mande region of West Africa). COPYRIGHT | This article is adapted from essay a workshop organized by the Centers for Latin American, Middle Eastern, East Asian, South Asian, and Eastern Europe/Russia/Eurasian Studies and the Committee on African Studies at the University of essay Chicago, June 18-29, 2001.